Geography, Grades 6-8 – 93 Words


Algeria

a republic in northwestern Africa on the Mediterranean Sea with a population that is predominantly Sunni Muslim; colonized by France in the 19th century but gained autonomy in the early 1960s

Amsterdam

an industrial center and the nominal capital of the Netherlands; center of the diamond-cutting industry; seat of an important stock exchange; known for its canals and art museum

Australia

the smallest continent

axis

a straight line through a body or figure

barrier island

a long narrow sandy island running parallel to the shore

Belgium

a monarchy in northwestern Europe

biome

major ecological community with distinct climate and flora

biosphere

the regions of the Earth where living organisms exist

Boston

state capital and largest city of Massachusetts

Brenner Pass

an Alpine mountain pass connecting Innsbruck in Austria with Bolzano in Italy that has long been a route for trade and for invasions

Canberra

the capital of Australia; located in southeastern Australia

Capitol Hill

a hill in Washington, D.C., where the Capitol Building sits and Congress meets

Chile

a republic in southern South America on the western slopes of the Andes on the south Pacific coast

China

a communist nation that covers a vast territory in eastern Asia; the most populous country in the world

Congo

a major African river

conservationist

someone who works to protect the environment from destruction or pollution

Cumberland Gap

a pass through the Cumberland Mountains between Virginia and Kentucky that early settlers used in order to move west

decentralization

the spread of power away from the center to local branches or governments

Delaware River

a river that rises in the Catskills in southeastern New York and flows southward along the border of Pennsylvania with New York and New Jersey to northern Delaware where it empties into Delaware Bay

developing country

a country that is poor and whose citizens are mostly agricultural workers but that wants to become more advanced socially and economically

downstream

in the direction of a stream’s current

drainage basin

the entire geographical area drained by a river and its tributaries; an area characterized by all runoff being conveyed to the same outlet

ecosystem

organisms interacting with their physical environment

equilibrium

a stable situation in which forces cancel one another

Ethiopia

Ethiopia is a republic in northeastern Africa on the Red Sea

Everglades

a large subtropical swamp in southern Florida that is noted for its wildlife

fauna

all the animal life in a particular region or period

floodplain

a low plain adjacent to a river that is formed chiefly of river sediment and is subject to flooding

flora

all the plant life in a particular region or period

global warming

a rise in the average temperature of the earth’s atmosphere

hemisphere

half of a sphere

Hong Kong

formerly a Crown Colony on the coast of southern China in Guangdong province; leased by China to Britain in 1842 and returned in 1997; one of the world’s leading commercial centers

housing development

a residential area of similar dwellings built by property developers and usually under a single management

human process

a process in which human beings are involved

hurricane

a severe tropical cyclone usually with heavy rains and winds

Indonesia

a republic in southeastern Asia on an archipelago including more than 13,000 islands; achieved independence from the Netherlands in 1945; the principal oil producer in the Far East and Pacific regions

infrastructure

the basic features of a system or organization

interdependence

a relation between entities that rely on each other

Inuit

a member of a people inhabiting the Arctic

isthmus

a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas

Italy

a republic in southern Europe on the Italian Peninsula

Khyber Pass

a mountain pass of great strategic and commercial value in the Hindu Kush on the border between northern Pakistan and western Afghanistan; a route by which invaders entered India

leeward

on the side away from the wind

levee

an embankment built to prevent a river from overflowing

lithosphere

the part of the Earth consisting of the crust and mantle

meridian

an imaginary great circle on the surface of the earth

Mesopotamia

the land between the Tigris and Euphrates

mobility

the quality of moving freely

natural resource

resources (actual and potential) supplied by nature

Netherlands

a constitutional monarchy in western Europe on the North Sea

New Delhi

the capital of India is a division of the old city of Delhi

nitrogen cycle

the circulation of nitrogen

overpopulation

too much population

Pakistan

a Muslim republic that occupies the heartland of ancient south Asian civilization in the Indus River valley; formerly part of India; achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1947

Philippines

a republic on the Philippine Islands

physical geography

the study of physical features of the earth’s surface

political unit

a unit with political responsibilities

prevailing wind

the predominant wind direction

public housing

a housing development that is publicly funded and administered for low-income families

public transit

a public transportation system for moving passengers

reforestation

the restoration (replanting) of a forest that had been reduced by fire or cutting

renewable resource

any natural resource (as wood or solar energy) that can be replenished naturally with the passage of time

Riviera

a coastal area between La Spezia in Italy and Cannes in France

runoff

an election to resolve a vote that did not produce a winner

Saudi Arabia

an absolute monarchy occupying most of the Arabian Peninsula in southwest Asia; vast oil reserves dominate the economy

savanna

a flat grassland in tropical or subtropical regions

school district

a district whose public schools are administered together

Siberia

a vast Asian region of Russia; famous for long cold winters

Singapore

an island to the south of the Malay Peninsula

soil erosion

the washing away of soil by the flow of water

solar power

energy from the sun that is converted into thermal or electrical energy

South Africa

a republic at the southernmost part of Africa

Soviet Union

a former communist country in eastern Europe and northern Asia; established in 1922; included Russia and 14 other soviet socialist republics (Ukraine and Byelorussia and others); officially dissolved 31 December 1991

spatial

pertaining to the expanse in which things are located

spatial arrangement

the property possessed by an array of things that have space between them

standard of living

a level of material comfort in terms of goods and services available to someone or some group

strait

a narrow channel joining two larger bodies of water

Sunbelt

states in the south and southwest that have a warm climate and tend to be politically conservative

tariff

a government tax on imports or exports

The Hague

the site of the royal residence and the de facto capital in the western part of the Netherlands; seat of the International Court of Justice

topography

the configuration of a surface and its features

Trenton

capital of the state of New Jersey

Tropic of Cancer

a line of latitude about 23 degrees to the north of the equator

Tropic of Capricorn

a line of latitude about 23 degrees to the south of the equator

tropical rain forest

a rain forest in a tropical area

tsunami

a cataclysm resulting from a destructive sea wave

tundra

a vast treeless plain where subsoil is permanently frozen

Vietnamese

a native or inhabitant of Vietnam

Washington

1st President of the United States

water supply

a facility that provides a source of water

watershed

a ridge of land that separates two adjacent river systems

World Court

a court established to settle disputes between members of the United Nations

Yucatan Peninsula

a peninsula in Central America extending into the Gulf of Mexico between the Bay of Campeche and the Caribbean Sea


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