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The New SAT: The Language of the Test – 150 Words

abstract

not representing or imitating external reality

The most likely purpose of the parenthetical information in lines 54–55 (“(which is a sequence of DNA that controls gene activity)”) is to: illustrate an abstract concept. (Khan Academy)
accompanying

occurring at the same time, along with, or as a consequence

After reading each passage or pair, choose the best answer to each question based on what is stated or implied in the passage or passages and in any accompanying graphics (such as a table or graph). (College Board)
adapt

make fit for, or change to suit a new purpose

This passage is adapted from Edith Wharton, Ethan Frome, originally published in 1911. Mattie Silver is Ethan’s household employee. (College Board)
address

direct one’s efforts towards something, such as a question

The first paragraph serves mainly to: describe a natural phenomenon and address its importance. (Khan Academy)
advance

bring forward for consideration or acceptance

Which statement best describes the relationship between the passages? Passage 2 refutes the central claim advanced in Passage 1. (Khan Academy)
allude

make an indirect reference to

The analogy in the final sentence of Passage 2 has primarily which effect? It alludes to the past to evoke a nostalgic response. (Khan Academy)
analysis

an investigation of the component parts of a whole

Which choice best describes the developmental pattern of the passage? A careful analysis of a traditional practice. (Khan Academy)
analyze

consider in detail in order to discover essential features

The main purpose of the first paragraph is to: analyze a reaction. (Khan Academy)
appeal

earnest or urgent request

As you read the passage below, consider how Paul Bogard uses stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion, to add power to the ideas expressed. (College Board)
argue

present reasons to support one’s views

Which statement best describes the relationship between the passages? Passage 2 argues against the practicality of the proposals put forth in Passage 1. (Khan Academy)
argument

an assertion offered as evidence that something is true

Which best describes the overall relationship between Passage 1 and Passage 2? Passage 2 restates in different terms the argument presented in Passage 1. (Khan Academy)
assumption

a statement that is held to be true

The passage indicates that the assumption made by gift-givers in
lines 36–39 may be… (Khan Academy)
author

a person who writes professionally

The authors of both passages would most likely agree with which of the following statements about women in the eighteenth century? (Khan Academy)
capture

succeed in representing or expressing something intangible

Which statement best captures Ken Dial’s central assumption in setting up his research? (Khan Academy)
central

serving as an essential component

The central claim of Passage 2 is that space mining has positive potential but… (Khan Academy)
challenge

take exception to

Which best describes the overall relationship between Passage 1 and Passage 2? Passage 2 strongly challenges the point of view in Passage 1. (Khan Academy)
character

an imaginary person represented in a work of fiction

The author includes the descriptions of the sunset, the clouds, and the hemlock shadows (lines 30–32) primarily to: emphasize the acuteness of two characters’ sensations. (College Board)
character

attributes that determine one’s moral and ethical actions

The main purpose of the fifth paragraph is to: provide support for the idea that ethics is about character. (Khan Academy)
characterize

describe or portray the qualities or peculiarities of

According to chart 2, the years 2000–2010 were characterized by… (Khan Academy)
cite

refer to for illustration or proof

Which choice does the author explicitly cite as an advantage of automobile travel in North America? (Khan Academy)
claim

an assertion that something is true or factual

Which choice best supports the claim that Quilotoa was not responsible for the Little Ice Age? (Khan Academy)
clarify

make clear and comprehensible

The most likely purpose of the parenthetical information in
lines 54–55 is to: clarify a claim.
compare

examine and note the similarities or differences of

The main purpose of each passage is to: compare brain function in those who play games on the Internet and those who browse on it. (Khan Academy)
comparison

the act of examining resemblances

What function does the discussion of water in lines 31–35 serve in Passage 1? It continues an extended comparison that begins in the previous paragraph. (Khan Academy)
concept

an abstract or general idea inferred from specific instances

Which concept is supported by the passage and by the information in the graph? (Khan Academy)
conclusion

a position or opinion reached after consideration

Which choice best supports the conclusion that public transportation is compatible with the use of personal electronic devices? (Khan Academy)
confirm

establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts

The authors’ main purpose of including the information about X-ray evidence and density is to: confirm the relationship between the density of DNA and the known chemical formula of DNA. (Khan Academy)
consistent

in agreement or reliable

Is the main conclusion presented by the author of Passage 2 consistent with Morgan’s canon, as described in Passage 1? (College Board)
contend

maintain or assert

In lines 34–37 (“Prosecutions…sense”), what is the most likely reason Jordan draws a distinction between two types of “parties”? To contend that Hamilton was too timid in his support for the concept of impeachment. (College Board)
context

discourse that surrounds and helps explain a word or passage

In the context of the passage, the author’s use of the phrase “her light step flying to keep time with his long stride” (line 3) is primarily meant to convey the idea that… (College Board)
contradict

be in opposition to

A student claims that nitrogenous bases pair randomly with one another. Which of the following statements in the passage contradicts the student’s claim? (Khan Academy)
contrast

put in opposition to show or emphasize differences

The author refers to reed warblers and sparrows (line 32) primarily to: contrast the loggerhead turtle’s migration patterns with those of other species. (College Board)
controversy

a dispute where there is strong disagreement

The stance Jordan takes in the passage is best described as that of: a scholar researching a historical controversy. (College Board)
convey

serve as a means for expressing something

In the context of the passage, the author’s use of the phrase “her light step flying to keep time with his long stride” (line 3) is primarily meant to convey the idea that… (College Board)
counter

speak in response

In lines 34–37 (“Prosecutions…sense”), what is the most likely reason Jordan draws a distinction between two types of “parties”? To counter the suggestion that impeachment is or should be about partisan politics. (College Board)
counterargument

an opinion offered in opposition to another position

The main purpose of the fifth paragraph (lines 40–49) is to: develop a counterargument to the claim that greed is good. (Khan Academy)
criticize

point out real or perceived flaws

The main purpose of the first paragraph is to: criticize a tradition. (Khan Academy)
critique

appraise or judge in an analytical way

Which choice best describes the relationship between the two passages? Passage 2 critiques the conclusions drawn from the research discussed in Passage 1. (Khan Academy)
data

a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn

Which choice is supported by the data in the first graph? (Khan Academy)
define

explain the meaning of a word

The most likely purpose of the parenthetical information in
lines 54–55 is to: define a term. (Khan Academy)
demonstrate

show the validity of something, as by example or explanation

The author uses the phrase “is written in” most likely to: demonstrate the concept of the hands-on nature of the work done by scientists. (Khan Academy)
describe

give a statement representing something

Which best describes the overall relationship between Passage 1 and Passage 2? (Khan Academy)
description

a statement that represents something in words

Over the course of the passage, the focus shifts from: a description of a recorded event to its likely cause. (College Board)
determine

find out or learn with certainty, as by making an inquiry

The narrator indicates that many previous explorers seeking the North Pole have: failed to determine its exact location. (Khan Academy)
develop

elaborate, as of theories and hypotheses

As you read the passage below, consider how Paul Bogard uses: reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence. (College Board)
development

a process in which something passes to a different stage

The primary purpose of the passage is to: explain the development of a branch of scientific study. (Khan Academy)
dictate

determine, order, or control how something is done

According to the experiment described in Passage 2, whether the author’s ravens continued to show interest in a formerly new object was dictated primarily by whether that object was… (College Board)
difference

the quality of being unlike or dissimilar

Data in the graph indicate that the greatest difference between per-pound profits from fair trade coffee and those from regular coffee occurred during which period? (Khan Academy)
disagree

be of different opinions

The author of the passage would most likely consider the information in chart 1 to be: representative of a perspective with which the author disagrees. (Khan Academy)
discuss

to consider or examine in speech or writing

Which choice best describes the relationship between the two passages? Passage 2 critiques the conclusions drawn from the research discussed in Passage 1. (Khan Academy)
discussion

an extended communication dealing with a particular topic

Within Passage 1, the main purpose of the first two paragraphs (lines 1–7) is to: offer interpretive context in order to frame the discussion of an experiment and its results. (College Board)
dispute

take exception to

In lines 53–56, the author of Passage 2 refers to a statement made in Passage 1 in order to: dispute the assertion made about women in the first sentence of Passage 1. (Khan Academy)
distinct

not alike; different in nature or quality

The main rhetorical effect of the series of three phrases beginning in line 3 (“the diminution, the subversion, the destruction”) is to: indicate that Jordan thinks the Constitution is prone to failure in three distinct ways. (College Board)
elaborate

add details, as to an account or idea

Which best describes the overall relationship between Passage 1 and Passage 2? Passage 2 elaborates on the proposal presented in Passage 1. (Khan Academy)
emotion

any strong feeling

As you read the passage below, consider how Paul Bogard uses: stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion, to add power to the ideas expressed. (College Board)
emphasize

stress or single out as important

The author includes the descriptions of the sunset, the clouds, and the hemlock shadows (lines 30–32) primarily to: emphasize the acuteness of two characters’ sensations. (College Board)
empirical

derived from experiment and observation rather than theory

As used in line 1, “not readily verifiable” most nearly means: without empirical support. (Khan Academy)
establish

set up or lay the groundwork for

The main purpose of the opening sentence of the passage is to: establish the narrator’s perspective on a controversy. (Khan Academy)
evaluate

estimate the nature, quality, ability or significance of

The primary purpose of the passage is to: evaluate the research that led to a scientific discovery. (Khan Academy)
evidence

an indication that makes something apparent

Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? (Khan Academy)
evoke

call forth, as an emotion, feeling, or response

The analogy in the final sentence of Passage 2 has primarily which effect? It alludes to the past to evoke a nostalgic response. (Khan Academy)
examine

consider in detail in order to discover essential features

Which choice best describes the relationship between the two passages? Passage 2 takes a high-level view of a result that Passage 1 examines in depth. (Khan Academy)
example

an item of information that is typical of a class or group

As you read the passage below, consider how Paul Bogard uses: evidence, such as facts or examples, to support claims. (College Board)
experiment

the act of conducting a controlled test or investigation

Which choice best reflects the overall sequence of events in the passage? An experiment is proposed but proves unworkable; a less ambitious experiment is attempted, and it yields data that give rise to a new set of questions. (Khan Academy)
explain

make plain and comprehensible

The primary purpose of the passage is to: explain the development of a branch of scientific study. (Khan Academy)
explanation

a statement that makes something comprehensible

Is the main conclusion presented by the author of Passage 2 consistent with Morgan’s canon, as described in Passage 1? Yes, because the conclusion offers a satisfyingly simple explanation of the ravens’ behavior. (College Board)
explicit

precisely and clearly expressed or readily observable

Which choice does the author explicitly cite as an advantage of automobile travel in North America? (Khan Academy)
expose

show; make visible or apparent

The sentence in lines 8-11 (“For years . . . other”) mainly serves to: expose a side of the narrator that he prefers to keep hidden. (Khan Academy)
fact

a piece of information about events that have occurred

As you read the passage below, consider how Paul Bogard uses: evidence, such as facts or examples, to support claims. (College Board)
factor

anything that contributes causally to a result

The passage identifies which of the following as a factor that facilitated the baby Chukars’ traction on steep ramps? (Khan Academy)
favor

promote or prefer over another

What function does the third paragraph (lines 18–30) serve in the passage as a whole? It acknowledges that a practice favored by the author of the passage has some limitations. (Khan Academy)
figurative

not literal

Which choice most closely captures the meaning of the figurative “sixpence” referred to in line 60(“sixpence?”)? (Khan Academy)
focus

special emphasis attached to something

Over the course of the passage, the main focus of the narrative shifts from the… (College Board)
foreshadow

indicate by signs

The author includes the descriptions of the sunset, the clouds, and the hemlock shadows (lines 30–32) primarily to: foreshadow the declining fortunes of two characters. (College Board)
function

what something is used for

What function does the third paragraph (lines 18–30) serve in the passage as a whole? (Khan Academy)
graph

a visual representation of the relations between quantities

Which choice is supported by the data in the first graph? (Khan Academy)
graphic

a visual image

After reading each passage or pair, choose the best answer to each question based on what is stated or implied in the passage or passages and in any accompanying graphics (such as a table or graph). (College Board)
highlight

move into the foreground to make more visible or prominent

The main purpose of the passage is to: highlight the severity of social divisions. (Khan Academy)
hypothesis

a tentative insight that is not yet verified or tested

The most likely purpose of the parenthetical information in
lines 54–55 (“(which is a sequence of DNA that controls gene activity)”) is to: describe a new hypothesis.
hypothetical

based primarily on surmise rather than adequate evidence

What function does the discussion of water in lines 31–35 serve in Passage 1? (Khan Academy)
identify

recognize as being

It can reasonably be inferred that “the strong-minded” was a term generally intended to: identify women who demonstrate intellectual skill. (Khan Academy)
illustrate

clarify by giving an example of

The description of how Lady Carlotta “put the doctrine of non-interference into practice” (lines 13–14) mainly serves to: illustrate the subtle cruelty in her nature. (Khan Academy)
implicit

suggested though not directly expressed

Which point about the resources that will be highly valued in space is implicit in Passage 1 and explicit in Passage 2? (Khan Academy)
imply

express or state indirectly

The passage most clearly implies that other people regarded Lady Carlotta as… (Khan Academy)
include

have as a part, be made up out of

The author includes the descriptions of the sunset, the clouds, and the hemlock shadows (lines 30–32) primarily to… (College Board)
indicate

give evidence of

The passage indicates that Edward Crimsworth’s behavior was mainly caused by his… (Khan Academy)
infer

conclude by reasoning

What can reasonably be inferred about gliding animals from the passage? (Khan Academy)
influence

have and exert an effect

Based on information in the passage, it can reasonably be inferred that all internal waves: may be caused by similar factors but are influenced by the distinct topographies of different regions. (Khan Academy)
information

a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn

The author of the passage would most likely consider the information in chart 1 to be… (Khan Academy)
intention

an anticipated outcome that guides your planned actions

The main purpose of the opening sentence of the passage is to: contrast the narrator’s good intentions with his malicious conduct. (Khan Academy)
interpret

make sense of; assign a meaning to

The author uses the phrase “is written in” (line 6) most likely to: reinforce the idea that the evidence is there and can be interpreted by scientists. (Khan Academy)
introduce

bring before the public for the first time

Within Passage 1, the main purpose of the first two paragraphs (lines 1–7) is to: introduce a scientific principle in order to show how an experiment’s outcomes validated that principle. (College Board)
item

a distinct part that can be specified separately in a group

…you may wish to also review the sample items in their fully formatted version. (College Board)
likely

having a good chance of being the case or of coming about

The author of the passage would most likely consider the information in chart 1 to be… (Khan Academy)
mention

make reference to

Which of the following does the author suggest about the “female goats” mentioned in line 51?
mimic

imitate, especially for satirical effect

The crows in Passage 1 and the ravens in Passage 2 shared which trait? They mimicked the actions they saw performed around them. (College Board)
motivation

psychological feature arousing action toward a desired goal

In the second paragraph (lines 10–27), the incident involving the local rancher mainly serves to: reveal Ken Dial’s motivation for undertaking his project. (Khan Academy)
motive

the reason that arouses action toward a desired goal

The authors refer to work by Camerer and others (line 49) in order to: question a motive. (Khan Academy)
narrative

an account that tells the particulars of an act or event

Over the course of the passage, the main focus of the narrative shifts from the… (College Board)
narrator

someone who tells a story

During the course of the first paragraph, the narrator’s focus shifts from… (Khan Academy)
option

one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen

Please choose from one of the following options. (Khan Academy)
paragraph

one of several distinct subdivisions of a text

The first paragraph serves mainly to… (Khan Academy)
passage

a section of text, particularly a section of medium length

Which choice best reflects the overall sequence of events in the passage? (Khan Academy)
pattern

a perceptual structure

Which choice best describes the developmental pattern of the passage? (Khan Academy)
percent

a proportion in relation to a whole

Based on data in the table, in what percent of colonies with colony collapse disorder were the honeybees infected by all four pathogens? (Khan Academy)
percentage

a proportion in relation to a whole

Based on the table and passage, which choice gives the correct percentages of the purines in yeast DNA? (Khan Academy)
perspective

a way of regarding situations or topics

The main purpose of the opening sentence of the passage is to: establish the narrator’s perspective on a controversy. (Khan Academy)
phrase

an expression consisting of one or more words

Stanton uses the phrase “high carnival” (line 13) mainly to emphasize what she sees as the… (Khan Academy)
point of view

a mental position from which things are perceived

Which best describes the overall relationship between Passage 1 and Passage 2? Passage 2 strongly challenges the point of view in Passage 1. (Khan Academy)
portray

depict in words

As used in line 53, “document” most nearly means: portray. (Khan Academy)
possess

have as an attribute, knowledge, or skill

As used in
line 43, “take the slightest interest in” most nearly means: possess little regard for. (Khan Academy)
predict

tell in advance

Which choice best describes the relationship between the two passages? Passage 2 predicts the negative reactions that the findings discussed in Passage 1 might produce. (Khan Academy)
previous

just preceding something else in time or order

Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? (Khan Academy)
primarily

for the most part

In the context of the passage, the author’s use of the phrase “her light step flying to keep time with his long stride” (line 3) is primarily meant to convey the idea that… (College Board)
primary

most important

The primary purpose of the passage is to… (Khan Academy)
principle

a basic generalization that is accepted as true

The stance Jordan takes in the passage is best described as that of: an idealist setting forth principles. (College Board)
propose

present for consideration, examination, or criticism

Do the data in the table support the authors’ proposed pairing of bases in DNA? (Khan Academy)
provide

give something useful or necessary to

Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? (College Board)
purpose

an anticipated outcome that guides your planned actions

The main purpose of the first paragraph is to… (Khan Academy)
refer

make a remark that calls attention to

The author of Passage 2 refers to the novel War and Peace primarily to suggest that Woody Allen… (Khan Academy)
reflect

manifest or indicate

Which choice best reflects the overall sequence of events in the passage? (Khan Academy)
reflection

a calm, lengthy, intent consideration

During the course of the first paragraph, the narrator’s focus shifts from: reflection on his expectations of life as a tradesman to his desire for another job. (Khan Academy)
refute

overthrow by argument, evidence, or proof

Which statement best describes the relationship between the passages? Passage 2 refutes the central claim advanced in Passage 1. (Khan Academy)
reinforce

make stronger

Woolf uses the word “we” throughout the passage mainly to: reinforce the need for respect among a group of people. (Khan Academy)
relationship

a state involving dealings between people, parties, or ideas

Which statement best describes the relationship between the passages? (Khan Academy)
restate

to say or perform again

Which best describes the overall relationship between Passage 1 and Passage 2? Passage 2 restates in different terms the argument presented in Passage 1. (Khan Academy)
reveal

make known to the public information previously kept secret

How does the graph support the author’s point that internal waves affect ocean water dynamics? It reveals the degree to which an internal wave affects the density of deep layers of cold water. (Khan Academy)
rhetorical

relating to using language effectively

The main rhetorical effect of the series of three phrases beginning in line 3 (“the diminution, the subversion, the destruction”) is to… (College Board)
shift

change in quality

Over the course of the passage, the main focus of the narrative shifts from the… (College Board)
significant

important in effect or meaning

According to Peacock, the ability to monitor internal waves is significant primarily because… (Khan Academy)
similar

having the same or nearly the same characteristics

The narrator indicates that Claude, Wilfrid, Irene, and Viola are: similar to many of their peers. (Khan Academy)
stance

a rationalized mental attitude

The stance Jordan takes in the passage is best described as that of… (College Board)
substantiate

establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts

The passage indicates that the assumption made by gift-givers in
lines 36–39 may be: substantiated. (Khan Academy)
suggest

imply as a possibility

The passage most strongly suggests that beekeepers’ attempts to fight mite infestations with commercially produced insecticides have what unintentional effect? (Khan Academy)
suggestion

an idea that is proposed

The main purpose of the first paragraph is to: question a suggestion. (Khan Academy)
summarize

present the main points in a concise form

Which choice best summarizes the passage? (Khan Academy)
supplementary

functioning in a supporting capacity

Questions 6–8 are based on the following passage and supplementary material. (College Board)
support

establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts

Which claim about traffic congestion is supported by the graph? (College Board)
symbolic

serving as a visible sign for something abstract

The main purpose of the opening sentence of the passage is to: offer a symbolic representation of Edward Crimsworth’s plight. (Khan Academy)
table

a set of data arranged in rows and columns

Based on data in the table, which of the four pathogens infected the highest percentage of honeybee colonies without colony collapse disorder? (Khan Academy)
tend

have a disposition to do or be something; be inclined

What can reasonably be inferred about gliding animals from the passage? Their young tend to hop along beside their parents instead of flying beside them. (Khan Academy)
term

a word or expression used for some particular thing

The most likely purpose of the parenthetical information in lines 54–55 is to: define a term. (Khan Academy)
theory

a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the world

Over the course of the passage, the focus shifts from: a criticism of a scientific model to a new theory. (Khan Academy)
tone

a quality that reveals the attitudes of the author

How do the words “can,” “may,” and “could” in the third paragraph (lines 17–37) help establish the tone of the paragraph? (Khan Academy)
trait

a distinguishing feature of your personal nature

The crows in Passage 1 and the ravens in Passage 2 shared which trait? (College Board)
underscore

give extra weight to

The author uses the phrase “is written in” (line 6) most likely to: underscore the sense of importance that scientists have regarding their work. (Khan Academy)
validate

give evidence for

In lines 53–56, the author of Passage 2 refers to a statement made in Passage 1 in order to: validate the concluding declarations made by the authors of Passage 1 about gender roles. (Khan Academy)
value

the quality that renders something desirable

Over the course of the passage, the main focus of the narrative shifts from the: value a character attaches to the wonders of the natural world to a rejection of that sort of beauty in favor of human artistry. (College Board)
vary

be subject to change

Based on the table, is the percentage of adenine in each organism’s DNA the same or does it vary, and which statement made by the authors is most consistent with that data? (Khan Academy)
yield

give or supply

It can be inferred that the authors of Passage 1 believe that running a household and raising children: yield less value for society than do the roles performed by men. (Khan Academy)

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