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Social studies, Grades 1-5 – 195 Words

advantage

the quality of having a superior or more favorable position

advertising

the business of drawing attention to goods and services

agreement

harmony of people’s opinions, actions, or characters

alien

from another place or part of the world

authority

the power or right to give orders or make decisions

bank

financial institution that accepts deposits and lends money

barter

exchange goods without involving money

benefit

something that aids or promotes well-being

Bill of Rights

a statement of fundamental rights and privileges

borrow

get temporarily

business

the principal activity in one’s life to earn money

business firm

the members of a business organization that owns or operates one or more establishments

buyer

a person who buys

campaign

related operations aimed at achieving a particular goal

candidate

someone who is considered for something

capital

a large alphabetic character used in writing or printing

chamber of commerce

an association of businesspeople to protect and promote business interests

citizen

a native or naturalized member of a state

citizenship

membership in a state with rights and duties

city council

a municipal body that can pass ordinances and appropriate funds etc.

civic responsibility

the responsibilities of a citizen

coin

a flat metal piece (usually a disc) used as money

Columbus Day

a legal holiday commemorating the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus

common good

the good of a community

community

a group of people living in a particular local area

competition

the act of contending with others for rewards or resources

compromise

an accommodation in which both sides make concessions

Congress

the legislature of the United States government

consumer

a person who uses goods or services

consumption

the act of using something up

contract

a binding agreement that is enforceable by law

control

power to direct or determine

cost

be priced at

credit

an estimate of ability to fulfill financial commitments

currency

the metal or paper medium of exchange that is presently used

debt

the state of owing something, especially money

Declaration of Independence

the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the Colonies from Great Britain

democracy

the orientation of those who favor government by the people

dime

a United States coin worth one tenth of a dollar

diplomacy

negotiation between nations

discrimination

unfair treatment of a person or group based on prejudice

diversity

noticeable variety

dollar

the basic monetary unit in many countries

duty

the social force that obliges you to behave in a certain way

earn

acquire or deserve by one’s efforts or actions

earnings

something that remunerates

economy

the system of production and distribution and consumption

education

activities that impart knowledge or skill

election

vote to select the winner of a position or political office

employer

a person or firm that hires workers

employment

the state of having a job

entrepreneur

someone who organizes a business venture

equal opportunity

the right to equivalent opportunities for employment regardless of race or color or sex or national origin

evidence

knowledge on which to base belief

executive branch

part of U.S. government responsible for carrying out laws

firm

not soft or yielding to pressure

flag

a rectangular piece of cloth of distinctive design

Fourth of July

a legal holiday in the United States

freedom of religion

a civil right guaranteed by the First Amendment to the US Constitution

freedom of speech

right guaranteed by the 1st Amendment to the US Constitution

funds

assets in the form of money

government

the system or form by which a community is ruled

governor

the head of a state authority

great seal

the principal seal of a government, symbolizing authority or sovereignty

honesty

the quality of being honest

household

a social unit living together in a residence

incentive

a positive motivational influence

income

the financial gain accruing over a given period of time

income tax

a personal tax levied on annual income

individual

being or characteristic of a single thing or person

innovation

the act of starting something for the first time

invasion of privacy

the wrongful intrusion by individuals or the government into private affairs with which the public has no concern

invention

the act of making something new

investment

laying out money or capital in an enterprise

investor

someone who commits capital to gain financial returns

job

a specific piece of work required to be done as a duty

jury duty

the civic duty to serve on a jury

Justice

the U.S. department responsible for enforcing federal laws

justice

the quality of being just or fair

Labor

the federal department responsible for promoting the working conditions of wage earners in the United States; created in 1913

labor

any piece of work that is undertaken or attempted

Labor Day

first Monday in September in the United States and Canada

labor union

an organization of employees formed to bargain with the employer

law

the collection of rules imposed by authority

law enforcement

ensuring obedience to the laws

lawmaker

a maker of laws; someone who gives a code of laws

leader

a person who rules or guides or inspires others

leadership

the status of being in charge

legislator

someone who makes or enacts laws

loan

the temporary provision of money (usually at interest)

local government

the government of a local area

loss

the act of losing someone or something

market

a marketplace where groceries are sold

mayor

the head of a city government

Memorial Day

legal holiday in the United States, last Monday in May

military force

a unit that is part of some military service

money

the most common medium of exchange

nation

a politically organized body of people under a government

national anthem

a song formally adopted as the anthem for a nation

national park

a tract of land declared by the national government to be public property

natural resource

resources (actual and potential) supplied by nature

needs

in such a manner as could not be otherwise

negotiation

a discussion intended to produce an agreement

nobility

a privileged class holding hereditary titles

official

of or relating to a place of business

order

logical or comprehensible arrangement of separate elements

partnership

a cooperative relationship between people or groups

patriotism

love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it

payment

the act of giving money in exchange for something

penalty

the disadvantage or painful consequences of an action

penny

a coin worth one-hundredth of the value of the basic unit

petition

a formal request that something be submitted to an authority

political party

an organization to gain political power

politics

the activities involved in managing a state or a government

pollution

contamination of the natural environment

population growth

increase in the number of people who inhabit a territory or state

poverty

the state of having little or no money and possessions

power

possession of the qualities required to do something

prejudice

a partiality preventing objective consideration of an issue

president

the chief executive of a republic

price

the amount of money needed to purchase something

price increase

increase in price

privacy

the condition of being concealed or hidden

privilege

a special advantage or benefit not enjoyed by all

producer

someone who manufactures something

product

an artifact that has been created by someone or some process

profit

the advantageous quality of being beneficial

public office

a position concerning the people as a whole

public servant

someone who holds a government position

quality of life

your personal satisfaction (or dissatisfaction) with the cultural or intellectual conditions under which you live (as distinct from material comfort)

quarter

one of four equal parts

race

a contest of speed

racial discrimination

discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race

reform

make changes for improvement to remove abuse and injustices

refugee

an exile who flees for safety

religion

a strong belief in supernatural powers that control destiny

religious belief

a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny

rent

a payment or series of payments made by a lessee to an owner

representation

standing in for someone and speaking on their behalf

representative

serving to typify

resource

aid or support that may be drawn upon when needed

responsibility

the social force that binds you to a course of action

revenue

the entire amount of income before any deductions are made

revolution

a single complete turn

reward

compensation for worthy acts or retribution for wrongdoing

right to vote

a legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US Constitution; guaranteed to women by the 19th amendment

risk

a source of danger

royalty

royal persons collectively

rule

prescribed guide for conduct or action

rule of law

a state of order in which events conform to the law

salary

fixed payment for services

sale

the general activity of selling

save

bring into safety

savings

a fund of money put by as a reserve

scarcity

a small and inadequate amount

school

an educational institution

school board

a board in charge of local public schools

self-discipline

the trait of practicing self discipline

sell

exchange or deliver for money or its equivalent

seller

someone who promotes or exchanges goods or services for money

senator

a member of a legislative assembly

services

performance of duties or provision of space and equipment helpful to others

shortage

an amount by which something is less than expected

slavery

the state of being under the control of another person

specialization

making something suitable for a particular purpose

spending

the act of spending or disbursing money

state government

the government of a state in the United States

state senator

a member of a state senate

Statue of Liberty

a large monumental statue symbolizing liberty on Liberty Island in New York Bay

Supreme Court

the highest federal court in the United States

surplus

a quantity much larger than is needed

symbol

something visible that represents something invisible

take turns

do something in turns

tax

charge against a citizen’s person or property or activity for the support of government

territory

a region marked off for administrative or other purposes

Thanksgiving

fourth Thursday in November in the United States

trade

the commercial exchange of goods and services

trade barrier

any regulation or policy that restricts international trade

trade-off

an exchange that occurs as a compromise

training

activity leading to skilled behavior

transportation

the act of moving something from one location to another

treaty

a written agreement between two states or sovereigns

truth

a factual statement

Uncle Sam

a personification of the United States government

unemployment

the state of not having a job

United States

North American republic containing 50 states – 48 conterminous states in North America plus Alaska in northwest North America and the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean; achieved independence in 1776

United States Constitution

the constitution written at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787 and subsequently ratified by the original thirteen states

value

the quality that renders something desirable

Veterans Day

a legal holiday in the United States

volunteer

a person who performs work done by choice

vote

a choice made by counting people in favor of alternatives

wage

something that remunerates

war

the waging of armed conflict against an enemy

welfare

something that aids or promotes well-being

worker

a person who works at a specific occupation
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