# Math, Grades 9-12 – 66 Words   absolute value

a real number regardless of its sign

acceleration

an increase in rate of change

arc

a continuous portion of a circle

binary system

a positional system of numeration that uses binary digits and a radix of two

chord

a combination of three or more notes that blend harmoniously

circular function

function of an angle expressed as a ratio of the length of the sides of right-angled triangle containing the angle

combination

the act of bringing things together to form a new whole

complex number

(mathematics) a number of the form a+bi where a and b are real numbers and i is the square root of -1

compound interest

interest calculated on both the principal and the accrued interest

conditional probability

the probability that an event will occur given that one or more other events have occurred

continuity

uninterrupted connection or union

correlation

a reciprocal connection between two or more things

cosine

ratio of the adjacent side to the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle

decibel

a logarithmic unit of sound intensity

density

the amount per unit size

derivation

the source or origin from which something comes

expected value

the sum of the values of a random variable divided by the number of values

exponent

notation of how many times to multiply a quantity by itself

exponential function

a function in which an independent variable appears as an exponent

factorial

the product of all the integers up to and including a given integer

Fibonacci sequence

a sequence of numbers in which each number equals the sum of the two preceding numbers

force

influence that results in motion, stress, etc. when applied

imaginary number

(mathematics) a number of the form a+bi where a and b are real numbers and i is the square root of -1

inflection

the patterns of stress and intonation in a language

interest

a sense of concern with and curiosity about something

inverse function

a function obtained by expressing the dependent variable of one function as the independent variable of another; f and g are inverse functions if f(x)=y and g(y)=x

irrational number

a real number that cannot be expressed as a rational number

isometry

equality of measure

law of large numbers

(statistics) law stating that a large number of items taken at random from a population will (on the average) have the population statistics

limit

as far as something can go

linear

involving a single dimension

logarithm

the exponent required to produce a given number

matrix

an enclosure within which something originates or develops

matrix inversion

determination of a matrix that when multiplied by the given matrix will yield a unit matrix

matrix multiplication

the multiplication of matrices

natural number

the number 1 and any other number obtained by adding 1 to it repeatedly

normal curve

a symmetrical curve representing the normal distribution

parameter

a constant in the equation of a curve that can be varied

permutation

a complete change in character or condition

polynomial

a mathematical function that is the sum of a number of terms

population

the people who inhabit a territory or state

postulate

maintain or assert

protractor

drafting instrument used to draw or measure angles

a straight line from the center to the perimeter of a circle

reciprocal

concerning each of two or more persons or things

regression coefficient

when the regression line is linear (y = ax + b) the regression coefficient is the constant (a) that represents the rate of change of one variable (y) as a function of changes in the other (x); it is the slope of the regression line

regression line

a smooth curve fitted to the set of paired data in regression analysis; for linear regression the curve is a straight line

Richter scale

a logarithmic scale of 1 to 10 formerly used to express the magnitude of an earthquake on the basis of the size of seismograph oscillations

scalar

a variable quantity that cannot be resolved into components

series

similar things placed in order or one after another

series circuit

a circuit having its parts connected serially

sine

ratio of the length of the side opposite the given angle to the length of the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle

speed

a rate at which something happens

spurious correlation

a correlation between two variables (e.g., between the number of electric motors in the home and grades at school) that does not result from any direct relation between them (buying electric motors will not raise grades) but from their relation to other variables

standard deviation

the square root of the variance

statistic

a datum that can be represented numerically

statistical regression

the relation between selected values of x and observed values of y (from which the most probable value of y can be predicted for any value of x)

tangent

a line that touches a curve at only one point

term

a limited period of time during which something lasts

theorem

an idea accepted as a demonstrable truth

transversal

extending or lying across

validity

the quality of being legitimate and rigorous

variance

the quality of being subject to change

vector

a quantity that has magnitude and direction

velocity

distance travelled per unit time 