History, Grades 9-12 – 183 Words


absolutism

a form of government in which the ruler is unconstrained

Abstract Expressionism

a New York school of painting characterized by freely created abstractions; the first important school of American painting to develop independently of European styles

Adam Smith

Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)

adaptation

the process of adjusting or conforming to new conditions

affluence

abundant wealth

Akhenaton

early ruler of Egypt who rejected the old gods and replaced them with sun worship (died in 1358 BC)

Alexander

king of Macedon

alphabetic writing

a writing system based on alphabetic characters

amnesty

a warrant granting release from punishment for an offense

Amsterdam

an industrial center and the nominal capital of the Netherlands; center of the diamond-cutting industry; seat of an important stock exchange; known for its canals and art museum

anti-Semitism

the intense dislike for and prejudice against Jewish people

Arab League

an international organization of independent Arab states formed in 1945 to promote cultural and economic and military and political and social cooperation

Arabia

a peninsula between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf

Arabic

the Semitic language of the Arabs

Argentina

a republic in southern South America

Aristotle

one of the greatest of the ancient Athenian philosophers

artisan

a skilled worker who practices some trade or handicraft

assimilation

the process of absorbing one cultural group into another

Ataturk

Turkish statesman who abolished the caliphate and founded Turkey as a modern secular state (1881-1938)

Athens

the capital and largest city of Greece; named after Athena

Austria

a mountainous republic in central Europe

Babylon

the chief city of ancient Mesopotamia and capital of the ancient kingdom of Babylonia

barbarian

a member of an uncivilized people

Bavaria

a state in southern Germany famous for its beer

Bismarck

German statesman under whose leadership Germany was united

Black Death

the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe

black market

an illegal market in which goods or currencies are bought and sold in violation of rationing or controls

Boccaccio

Italian poet (born in France) (1313-1375)

Boer

a white native of Cape Province who is a descendant of Dutch settlers and who speaks Afrikaans

Boer War

either of two wars: the first when the Boers fought England in order to regain the independence they had given up to obtain British help against the Zulus (1880-1881); the second when the Orange Free State and Transvaal declared war on Britain (1899-1902)

Bolshevik

a Russian member of the left-wing majority group that followed Lenin and eventually became the Russian communist party

British West Indies

the islands in the West Indies that were formerly under British control, including the Bahamas, Saint Lucia, Antigua, Grenada, Jamaica, Barbados, and Trinidad

Bruges

a city in northwestern Belgium that is connected by canal to the North Sea; in the 13th century it was a leading member of the Hanseatic League; the old city (known as the City of Bridges) is a popular tourist attraction

Buganda

a state of Uganda and site of a former Bantu kingdom

Cambodia

a nation in southeastern Asia

cartography

the making of maps and charts

Caspian Sea

a large saltwater lake between Iran and Russia fed by the Volga River; the largest inland body of water in the world

Caucasus

a large region between the Black and Caspian seas that contains the Caucasus Mountains; oil is its major resource

Cavalier

a royalist supporter of Charles I during the English Civil War

chemical warfare

warfare using chemical agents to kill or injure or incapacitate the enemy

Chile

a republic in southern South America on the western slopes of the Andes on the south Pacific coast

city planning

determining and drawing up plans for the future physical arrangement and condition of a community

city-state

a state consisting of a sovereign city

civic center

the center of a city

conscription

compulsory military service

Constantinople

the largest city and former capital of Turkey

constitutionalism

advocacy of government according to founding principles

continuity

uninterrupted connection or union

corporation

a business firm recognized by law as a single body

cubism

an artistic movement featuring surfaces of geometric planes

Cuzco

a town in the Andes in southern Peru

Czar Nicholas I

czar of Russia from 1825 to 1855 who led Russia into the Crimean War (1796-1855)

dadaism

a nihilistic art movement (especially in painting) that flourished in Europe early in the 20th century; based on irrationality and negation of the accepted laws of beauty

Damascus

an ancient city (widely regarded as the world’s oldest) and present capital and largest city of Syria; according to the New Testament, the Apostle Paul (then known as Saul) underwent a dramatic conversion on the road to Damascus

David Siqueiros

Mexican painter of murals depicting protest and revolution

defense policy

a program for defending a country against its enemies

demobilization

act of changing from a war basis to a peace basis including disbanding or discharging troops

democratization

the action of making something democratic

detente

the easing of tensions or strained relations

Diego Rivera

socialist Mexican painter of murals (1886-1957)

diffusion

the act of dispersing something

due process

administration of justice according to rules and principles

duke

a British peer of the highest rank

economy

the system of production and distribution and consumption

entrepreneur

someone who organizes a business venture

environmentalism

the philosophical doctrine that environment is more important than heredity in determining intellectual growth

Ernest Hemingway

an American writer of fiction who won the Nobel prize for literature in 1954 (1899-1961)

ethnicity

an affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties

European country

any one of the countries occupying the European continent

existentialism

a philosophy that assumes that people are entirely free

expansionism

the doctrine of extending the territory of a country

expressionism

an art movement focused on representing inner emotions

Federalist

a member of a former political party in the United States that favored a strong centralized federal government

Franco-Prussian War

a war between France and Prussia that ended the Second Empire in France and led to the founding of modern Germany; 1870-1871

free enterprise

an economy relying on market forces to allocate resources

free trade

international trade free of government interference

freedom of the press

a right guaranteed by the First Amendment to the US Constitution

French West Indies

the islands in the Lesser Antilles that are administered by France

fundamentalism

the interpretation of sacred texts as literal truth

Genoa

a seaport in northwestern Italy

genocide

systematic killing of a racial or cultural group

geopolitics

the study of the effects of economic geography on the powers of the state

George Orwell

imaginative British writer concerned with social justice

Golden Horde

a Mongolian army that swept over eastern Europe in the 13th century

Great War

a war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918

Guatemala

a republic in Central America

guild

a formal association of people with similar interests

hacienda

the main house on a ranch or large estate

Hadith

(Islam) a tradition based on reports of the sayings and activities of Muhammad and his companions

hearsay

gossip passed around by word of mouth

heredity

the transmission of genetic factors to the next generation

Herodotus

the ancient Greek known as the father of history

humanism

doctrine promoting the welfare of mankind

ideology

an orientation that characterizes the thinking of a group

Iliad

a Greek epic poem describing the siege of Troy

Impressionism

a school of late 19th century French painters who pictured appearances by strokes of unmixed colors to give the impression of reflected light

individualism

the quality of being a single thing or person

inflation

the act of filling something with air

integration

the act of combining into a whole

investment

laying out money or capital in an enterprise

Iran

a theocratic Islamic republic in the Middle East in western Asia; Iran was the core of the ancient empire that was known as Persia until 1935; rich in oil

jihad

a holy struggle by a Muslim for a moral or political goal

Joan of Arc

French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king; she was later tried for heresy and burned at the stake (1412-1431)

Kashmir

an area in southwestern Asia whose sovereignty is disputed between Pakistan and India

Kerensky

Russian revolutionary who was head of state after Nicholas II abdicated but was overthrown by the Bolsheviks (1881-1970)

Latin

any dialect of the language of ancient Rome

legal code

a code of laws adopted by a state or nation

liberalism

a political orientation favoring social progress by reform

liberation theology

a form of Christian theology (developed by South American Roman Catholics) that emphasizes social and political liberation as the anticipation of ultimate salvation

lingua franca

a common language used by speakers of different languages

Louis XIV

king of France from 1643 to 1715

Machiavelli

a statesman of Florence who advocated a strong central government (1469-1527)

Mahabharata

(Hinduism) a sacred epic Sanskrit poem of India dealing in many episodes with the struggle between two rival families

Maratha

a member of a people of India living in Maharashtra

martyr

one who voluntarily suffers death

Marxism

theory that capitalism will be superseded by communism

materialism

a desire for wealth and possessions

mercantilism

system increasing a nation’s wealth by government regulation

mercenary

a person hired to fight for another country than their own

Mesolithic

middle part of the Stone Age beginning about 15,000 years ago

mestizo

a person of mixed racial ancestry

Mexican Revolution

a revolution for agrarian reforms led in northern Mexico by Pancho Villa and in southern Mexico by Emiliano Zapata (1910-1911)

militarism

maintaining a strong force of armed services

military-industrial complex

a country’s military establishment and the industries that produce arms and other military equipment

mobilization

act of organizing and making ready for use or action

monotheism

belief in a single God

mulatto

an offspring of a black and a white parent

multiculturalism

the doctrine that different peoples can coexist peacefully

national debt

the debt of the national government

national socialism

a form of socialism featuring racism and expansionism and obedience to a strong leader

nationalism

the doctrine that your country’s interests are superior

natural history

the scientific study of plants or animals (more observational than experimental) usually published in popular magazines rather than in academic journals

neocolonialism

control by a powerful country of less developed countries

New World

the hemisphere that includes North America and South America

nullification

counteracting or overriding the effect or force of something

Odyssey

a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the journey of Odysseus after the fall of Troy

oppression

the act of subjugating by cruelty

parliament

a legislative assembly in certain countries

Philippines

a republic on the Philippine Islands

Plato

ancient Athenian philosopher

Pop Art

a school of art that emerged in the United Kingdom in the 1950s and became prevalent in the United States and the United Kingdom in the 1960s; it imitated the techniques of commercial art (as the soup cans of Andy Warhol) and the styles of popular culture and the mass media

primate

any placental mammal of the order Primates

privatization

changing something from state to individual ownership

propaganda

information that is spread to promote some cause

province

the territory in an administrative district of a nation

psyche

that which is responsible for one’s thoughts and feelings

quadrant

any of the four areas into which a plane is divided

radicalism

political orientation of those favoring revolutionary change

Ramayana

one of two classical Hindu epics telling of the banishment of Rama from his kingdom and the abduction of his wife by a demon and Rama’s restoration to the throne

rationalism

the doctrine that reason is the basis for regulating conduct

realism

the attribute of accepting the facts of life

realpolitik

politics based on practical rather than moral considerations

recession

the act of returning control

red scare

a period of general fear of communists

Red Sea

a long arm of the Indian Ocean between northeast Africa and Arabia; linked to the Mediterranean at the north end by the Suez Canal

repertoire

the range of skills in a particular field or occupation

republicanism

the political orientation of those who hold that a republic is the best form of government

resettlement

the transportation of people to a new settlement

retaliation

action taken in return for an injury or offense

reunification

the act of coming together again

Roundhead

a supporter of parliament and Oliver Cromwell during the English Civil War

sectionalism

excessive devotion to the interests of a particular region

self-determination

determination of one’s own fate or course of action without compulsion

Sikh

an adherent of Sikhism

Sino-Japanese War

a war between China and Japan (1894 and 1895) over the control of the Korean Peninsula; China was overwhelmingly defeated at Port Arthur

socialism

a political theory advocating state ownership of industry

South Africa

a republic at the southernmost part of Africa

sovereignty

the authority of a state to govern another state

Spender

English poet and critic (1909-1995)

sphere of influence

the geographical area in which one nation is very influential

status quo

the existing state of affairs

Sufism

Islamic mysticism

supply-side economics

the school of economic theory that stresses the costs of production as a means of stimulating the economy; advocates policies that raise capital and labor output by increasing the incentive to produce

surrealism

an artistic movement using fantastic and incongruous images

Thailand

a country of southeastern Asia that extends southward along the Isthmus of Kra to the Malay Peninsula

Treaty of Versailles

the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans

Ukraine

a republic in southeastern Europe

Venice

the provincial capital of Veneto

welfare state

a government that undertakes responsibility for the welfare of its citizens through programs in public health and public housing and pensions and unemployment compensation etc.

White Russian

a native or inhabitant of Byelorussia

workforce

the people employed or available for employment

writ of habeas corpus

a writ ordering a prisoner to be brought before a judge

Zoroastrianism

system of religion founded in Persia in the 6th century BC by Zoroaster; set forth in the Zend-Avesta; based on concept of struggle between light (good) and dark (evil)


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