History, Grades 6-8 – 262 Words


the process of adjusting or conforming to new conditions


a large-scale farming enterprise

Albert Einstein

physicist born in Germany who formulated the special theory of relativity and the general theory of relativity; Einstein also proposed that light consists of discrete quantized bundles of energy (later called photons) (1879-1955)


a pseudoscientific forerunner of chemistry in medieval times

Alfred Krupp

German arms manufacturer and son of Friedrich Krupp


a republic in northwestern Africa on the Mediterranean Sea with a population that is predominantly Sunni Muslim; colonized by France in the 19th century but gained autonomy in the early 1960s


a large mountain system in south-central Europe


a Native American who lived in what is now southern Colorado and Utah and northern Arizona and New Mexico and who built cliff dwellings


a peninsula in southwestern Asia that forms the Asian part of Turkey

Anne Hutchinson

American colonist (born in England) who was banished from Boston for her religious views (1591-1643)


a social scientist specializing in the study of humanity


a social policy of racial segregation


an ancient kingdom in northern Mesopotamia which is in present-day Iraq


the branch of physics that studies celestial bodies

atomic bomb

a nuclear weapon in which enormous energy is released by nuclear fission (splitting the nuclei of a heavy element like uranium 235 or plutonium 239)


of or relating to the African people who speak one of the Bantoid languages or to their culture


easternmost of the West Indies about 300 miles to the north of Venezuela


a country on western coast of Africa


capital of Germany located in eastern Germany

Bill Clinton

42nd President of the United States (1946-)

birth rate

the ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 population per year


the social class between the lower and upper classes

Calvin Coolidge

elected vice president and succeeded as 30th President of the United States when Harding died in 1923 (1872-1933)


an economic system based on private ownership of assets

capitalist economy

an economic system based on private ownership of capital

Catherine the Great

empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the empire (1729-1796)

Catholic Church

any of several churches claiming to have maintained historical continuity with the original Christian Church

Cecil Rhodes

British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa


an island in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern coast of India

chance event

anything that happens suddenly or by chance without an apparent cause

Charles Darwin

English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)

Charles Evans Hughes

United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1862-1948)

Chinese Revolution

the republican revolution against the Manchu dynasty in China; 1911-1912

civil disobedience

refusal to obey a law because it is believed to be immoral


a nonmilitary citizen


a society in an advanced state of social development


the entire class of religious officials in Christianity

closed shop

a company that hires only union members


king of the Franks who unified Gaul and established his capital at Paris and founded the Frankish monarchy; his name was rendered as Gallic `Louis’ (466-511)


the state of sticking together


the organization of a nation or economy on the basis of collectivism


the act of settling a group of people in a new place


the act of commercializing something

Communist Party

a political party that actively advocates a communist form of government; in Communist countries it is the sole political party of the state


the legislature of the United States government


belief in preserving tradition and opposing radical change

Continental Congress

the legislative assembly composed of delegates from the rebel colonies who met during and after the American Revolution; they issued the Declaration of Independence and framed Articles of Confederation

courtly love

a highly conventionalized code of conduct for lovers


a person descended from French ancestors in southern United States (especially Louisiana)


the largest Greek island in the Mediterranean

Crimean War

a war in Crimea between Russia and a group of nations including England and France and Turkey and Sardinia; 1853-1856

Cultural Revolution

a radical reform in China initiated by Mao Zedong in 1965 and carried out largely by the Red Guard; intended to eliminate counterrevolutionary elements in the government it resulted in purges of the intellectuals and socioeconomic chaos


a country on western coast of Africa

Darius I

king of Persia who expanded the Persian Empire and invaded Greece but was defeated at the battle of Marathon (550-486 BC)

Darius the Great

king of Persia who expanded the Persian Empire and invaded Greece but was defeated at the battle of Marathon (550-486 BC)

death rate

the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 per year


a member of the older of two major U.S. political parties

Democratic-Republican Party

a former major political party in the United States in the early 19th century; opposed the old Federalist party; favored a strict interpretation of the constitution in order to limit the powers of the federal government


a sunken or lowered geological formation


incorporation of a formerly excluded group into a community


unfair treatment of a person or group based on prejudice


the act of withdrawing certification or terminating a franchise


a difference of opinion

dollar diplomacy

diplomacy influenced by economic considerations

Dorothea Lange

United States photographer remembered for her portraits of rural workers during the Depression (1895-1965)

Dwight D. Eisenhower

United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy and the defeat of Nazi Germany; 34th President of the United States (1890-1961)

East India Company

an English company formed in 1600 to develop trade with the new British colonies in India and southeastern Asia; in the 18th century it assumed administrative control of Bengal and held it until the British army took over in 1858 after the Indian Mutiny

East Indies

a group of islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans between Asia and Australia


the system of production and distribution and consumption

Elizabeth I

Queen of England from 1558 to 1603


moving from one place in order to settle in another


a long narrative poem telling of a hero’s deeds

epidemic disease

any infectious disease that develops and spreads rapidly to many people

equal opportunity

the right to equivalent opportunities for employment regardless of race or color or sex or national origin

equal protection of the laws

a right guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution and by the due-process clause of the Fifth Amendment


Ethiopia is a republic in northeastern Africa on the Red Sea

ethnic group

people of the same race or nationality who share a distinctive culture

ethnic minority

a group that has different national or cultural traditions from the majority of the population


sequence of events involved in the development of a species


a journey by a group to escape from a hostile environment

fair deal

fair treatment


a political theory advocating an authoritarian government


the practice (usually by a labor union) of requiring an employer to hire more workers than are required


government divided between central and regional powers

Federalist Party

a major political party in the United States in the early 19th century; founded by Alexander Hamilton; favored a strong centralized government


a doctrine that advocates equal rights for women

feminist movement

the movement aimed at equal rights for women

feudal lord

a man of rank in the ancient regime


the social system in which vassals were protected by lords

final solution

the mass murder of Jews under the German Nazi regime from 1941 until 1945


the act of funding

First Amendment

an amendment to the U.S. Constitution guaranteeing freedoms

first lady

the wife of a chief executive


all the plant life in a particular region or period


a defensive structure

Francis Bacon

English statesman and philosopher

French and Indian War

a war in North America between France and Britain

gender role

the overt expression of attitudes that indicate to others the degree of your maleness or femaleness


a republic in West Africa on the Gulf of Guinea

Glorious Revolution

the revolution against James II


ancient Greece


the largest island in the world


an island in the West Indies


a series of ordered groupings within a system

High Renaissance

the artistic style of early 16th century painting in Florence and Rome; characterized by technical mastery and heroic composition and humanistic content


large outdoor signboard


a constitutional monarchy in western Europe on the North Sea


the mass murder of Jews under the German Nazi regime from 1941 until 1945

Homo erectus

extinct species of primitive hominid with upright stature but small brain

Homo sapiens

the only surviving hominid


a state of deep-seated ill-will

human nature

the shared psychological attributes of humankind that are assumed to be shared by all human beings


an ancient geographical region to the south of the Caucasus Mountains that corresponded approximately to the present-day Georgia

ice age

any period of time during which glaciers covered a large part of the earth’s surface


a formal document charging a public official with misconduct


a policy of extending your rule over foreign countries


bring in from abroad

Indo-European language

the family of languages that by 1000 BC were spoken throughout Europe and in parts of southwestern and southern Asia


the development of commercial enterprise

infant mortality rate

the death rate during the first year of life


the act of expressing something in an artistic performance


the act of interposing one thing between or among others


a republic in the Middle East in western Asia


city in central Iran; former capital of Persia


a policy of nonparticipation in international relations

Italian Renaissance

the early period when Italy was the center of the Renaissance

James Buchanan

15th President of the United States (1791-1868)

James Madison

4th President of the United States


genre of American music that developed in the 20th century

Jesus Christ

a teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth; his life and sermons form the basis for Christianity (circa 4 BC – AD 29)

John Marshall

United States jurist

Jose Clemente Orozco

Mexican painter noted for his monumental murals (1883-1949)

Joseph McCarthy

United States politician who unscrupulously accused many citizens of being Communists (1908-1957)

Karl Marx

founder of modern communism


the effects of a person’s actions that determine his destiny

kinship group

group of people related by blood or marriage


the Bantu language spoken by the Kongo living in the tropical forests of Zaire and Congo and Angola

Korean War

a war between North and South Korea

Ku Klux Klan

a secret society of white Southerners in the United States


the political party founded in 1911 by Sun Yat-sen

labor force

the source of trained people from which workers can be hired

labor union

an organization of employees formed to bargain with the employer


a person who is loyal to their allegiance




putting a person to death by mob action without due process


landlocked republic on the Balkan Peninsula

Machu Picchu

Inca fortress city in the Andes in Peru discovered in 1911

Magna Carta

the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215

Malcolm X

militant civil rights leader (1925-1965)


a member of the Manchu speaking people of Mongolian race of Manchuria; related to the Tungus; conquered China in the 17th century


a document giving an official instruction or command

Mao Zedong

Chinese communist leader (1893-1976)

marital status

the condition of being married or unmarried

Marshall Plan

a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952); named after George Marshall


a state in New England; one of the original 13 colonies


unscrupulously accusing people of disloyalty


a very large urban complex

Middle Ages

the period of history between classical antiquity and the Italian Renaissance

military unit

a unit that is part of some military service


autocracy governed by a ruler who usually inherits authority


the residence of a religious community


asceticism as a form of religious life

mortality rate

the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 per year


a Muslim place of worship that usually has a minaret

mound builder

large-footed short-winged birds of Australasia


a painting that is applied to a wall surface

national bank

a commercial bank chartered by the federal government


the policy of perpetuating native cultures


a German member of Adolf Hitler’s political party


nonparticipation in a dispute or war


an island in the north Atlantic

Niger River

an African river; flows into the South Atlantic


the beatitude that transcends the cycle of reincarnation


a privileged class holding hereditary titles

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security


a city of southeastern Mexico


glass formed by the cooling of lava without crystallization

open shop

a company whose workers are hired without regard to their membership in a labor union

organized labor

employees who are represented by a labor union


the government of the Roman Catholic Church


any disease-producing agent


the class of peasants


a theocratic Islamic republic in the Middle East in western Asia; Iran was the core of the ancient empire that was known as Persia until 1935; rich in oil

Persian Empire

an empire in southern Asia created by Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC and destroyed by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC

Persian Gulf

a shallow arm of the Arabian Sea between Iran and the Arabian peninsula; the Persian Gulf oil fields are among the most productive in the world


a way of regarding situations or topics

Peter the Great

czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government; he extended his territories in the Baltic and founded St. Petersburg (1682-1725)


someone who makes charitable donations


the rational investigation of existence and knowledge


Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)


a republic in central Europe


the islands in the eastern part of Oceania


political doctrine that supports the rights of common people

Populist Party

a former political party in the United States

port of entry

a port in the United States where customs officials are stationed to oversee the entry and exit of people and merchandise


a republic in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula

price war

intense competition in which competitors cut retail prices to gain business

private property

movable property (as distinguished from real estate)

protective tariff

a tariff imposed to protect domestic firms from import competition

Protestant Reformation

a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches

public opinion

a belief or sentiment shared by most people


the beliefs and practices characteristic of Puritans

Ramses II

king of Egypt between 1304 and 1237 BC who built many monuments


restricting the consumption of a relatively scarce commodity


a second or new birth

Rene Descartes

French philosopher and mathematician


a member of the younger of two major U.S. political parties

Republican Party

the younger of two major political parties in the United States; GOP is an acronym for grand old party

Roman Catholic Church

the Christian Church based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy


a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization

royal court

the family and retinue of a sovereign or prince


a person who has died and has been canonized


city in southern Uzbekistan

Saudi Arabia

an absolute monarchy occupying most of the Arabian Peninsula in southwest Asia; vast oil reserves dominate the economy

scientific method

method of observation to test scientific hypotheses

Scopes trial

a highly publicized trial in 1925 when John Thomas Scopes violated a Tennessee state law by teaching evolution in high school; Scopes was prosecuted by William Jennings Bryan and defended by Clarence Darrow; Scopes was convicted but the verdict was later reversed


formal separation from an alliance or federation


the act of keeping apart

service industry

an industry that provides services rather than tangible objects


the ancient indigenous religion of Japan lacking formal dogma; characterized by a veneration of nature spirits and of ancestors


a country of southeastern Asia that extends southward along the Isthmus of Kra to the Malay Peninsula


the Italian region on the island of Sicily

Sigmund Freud

Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis

social status

position in a social hierarchy

Socialist Party

a political party in the United States formed in 1900 to advocate socialism


a man who is a respected leader in national or international affairs

spoils system

the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power


a man who attends or escorts a woman

St. Petersburg

a city in the European part of Russia

standard of living

a level of material comfort in terms of goods and services available to someone or some group

Stanley Baldwin

English statesman; member of the Conservative Party

states’ rights

the rights conceded to the states by the United States constitution


the condition or someone or something at a particular time


a conventional or formulaic conception or image


forming or depositing in layers

strip mining

the mining of ore or coal from an open mine


a distinctive social group within a national society


a republic in northeastern Africa on the Red Sea


Mongolian ruler of Samarkand who led his nomadic hordes to conquer an area from Turkey to Mongolia (1336-1405)


(often plural) the branch of electrical engineering concerned with the technology of electronic communication at a distance


the trait of avoiding excesses


the use of violence against civilians for ideological goals

third party

someone other than the principals who are involved in a transaction


the first of three divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures comprising the first five books of the Hebrew Bible considered as a unit

trade balance

the difference in value over a period of time of a country’s imports and exports of merchandise

trade union

an organization of employees formed to bargain with the employer


a philosophy emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual


the act of changing in form or shape or appearance

trench warfare

a type of armed combat in which the opposing troops fight from trenches that face each other


a historical region of central Asia that was a center for trade between the East and the West


a later sacred text of Hinduism of a mystical nature dealing with metaphysical questions


the social process whereby cities grow


one of the British colonies that formed the United States

war crime

a crime committed in wartime; violation of rules of war


weapons considered collectively


something that aids or promotes well-being

Western culture

the modern culture of western Europe and North America

Whig Party

a former political party in the United States

White Sea

a large inlet of the Barents Sea in the northwestern part of European Russia

world power

a state powerful enough to influence events throughout the world

world war

a war in which the major nations of the world are involved


an island in the Indian Ocean off the east coast of Africa

بازی یادگیری زبان انگلیسی