History, Grades 1-5 – 590 Words

English Words (590 Words) selected in "History, Grades 1-5" will help you study for the SAT,GRE,ACT,TOEFL exams and learn english.

عودآنلاین - مرجع خرید آنلاین عودهای خوشبو هم HEM

A.D.

in the Christian era

abolitionist

a reformer who favors putting an end to slavery

Abraham Lincoln

16th President of the United States

Adolf Hitler

German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945)

Africa

the second largest continent

African American

an American whose ancestors were born in Africa

agriculture

the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock

aircraft carrier

a large warship that carries planes and has a long flat deck for takeoffs and landings

Alamo

a siege and massacre at a mission in San Antonio in 1836

Alaska

a state in northwestern North America

Alexander Graham Bell

United States inventor of the telephone

Alexander Hamilton

United States statesman and leader of the Federalists

Alfred the Great

king of Wessex

alliance

the state of being confederated

Amelia Earhart

first woman aviator to fly solo nonstop across the Atlantic

America

North America and South America and Central America

American Revolution

the revolution of the American Colonies against Great Britain; 1775-1783

ancestor worship

worship of ancestors

Andes

a mountain range in South America running 5000 miles along the Pacific coast

Andrew Jackson

7th president of the US

annexation

incorporation by joining or uniting

anno Domini

in the Christian era

aqueduct

a conduit that carries water over a valley

archeologist

an anthropologist who studies prehistoric people and their culture

archeology

the branch of anthropology that studies prehistoric people and their cultures

architect

someone who creates plans to be used in making something

architecture

the discipline dealing with the design of fine buildings

armed forces

the military forces of a nation

Articles of Confederation

a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states; it provided a legal symbol of their union by giving the central government no coercive power over the states or their citizens

artifact

a man-made object

Asia

the largest continent with 60% of the earth’s population

Asian American

an American who is of Asian descent

assembly line

mechanical system in a factory whereby an article is conveyed through sites at which successive operations are performed on it

astrolabe

an early form of sextant

Augustus

Roman statesman who established the Roman Empire and became emperor in 27 BC; defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra in 31 BC at Actium (63 BC – AD 14)

Australia

the smallest continent

autobiography

a book or account of your own life

automobile

a motor vehicle with four wheels

aviation

the art of operating aircraft

Aztec

a member of the Nahuatl people who established an empire in Mexico that was overthrown by Cortes in 1519

B.C.

before the Christian era

B.C.E.

of the period before the Common Era

Baghdad

capital and largest city of Iraq

Balkans

the major mountain range of Bulgaria and the Balkan Peninsula

ballad

a narrative poem of popular origin

Battle of Bull Run

either of two battles during the American Civil War

battle of Hastings

the decisive battle in which William the Conqueror (duke of Normandy) defeated the Saxons under Harold II (1066) and thus left England open for the Norman Conquest

behavior

the way a person acts toward other people

belief

any cognitive content held as true

Benito Mussolini

Italian fascist dictator (1883-1945)

Benjamin Franklin

printer whose success as an author led him to take up politics; he helped draw up the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution; he played a major role in the American Revolution and negotiated French support for the colonists; as a scientist he is remembered particularly for his research in electricity (1706-1790)

big business

commercial enterprises organized and financed on a scale large enough to influence social and political policies

Bill of Rights

a statement of fundamental rights and privileges

biography

an account of the series of events making up a person’s life

Black Sea

a sea between Europe and Asia

Bombay

a city in western India just off the coast of the Arabian Sea; India’s 2nd largest city (after Calcutta); has the only natural deep-water harbor in western India

Booker T. Washington

United States educator who was born a slave but became educated and founded a college at Tuskegee in Alabama (1856-1915)

Boston

state capital and largest city of Massachusetts

Boston Tea Party

demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Native Americans) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor; organized as a protest against taxes on tea

bow and arrow

a weapon consisting of arrows and the bow to shoot them

Brahmanism

the religious beliefs of ancient India as prescribed in the sacred Vedas and Brahmanas and Upanishads

Brazil

the largest Latin American country and the largest Portuguese speaking country in the world; located in the central and northeastern part of South America; world’s leading coffee exporter

Brer Rabbit

the fictional character of a rabbit who appeared in tales supposedly told by Uncle Remus and first published in 1880

bridge

structure allowing passage across a river or other obstacle

Britain

a monarchy in northwestern Europe occupying most of the British Isles; divided into England and Scotland and Wales and Northern Ireland; `Great Britain’ is often used loosely to refer to the United Kingdom

Buddha

founder of Buddhism; worshipped as a god (c 563-483 BC)

Buddhism

the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth

Buenos Aires

capital and largest city of Argentina

Byzantine Empire

a continuation of the Roman Empire in the Middle East after its division in 395

Byzantium

an ancient city on the Bosporus founded by the Greeks

C.E.

of the period coinciding with the Christian era

Cairo

the capital of Egypt and the largest city in Africa

California

a state in the western United States on the Pacific

camel

cud-chewing mammal used as a saddle animal in desert regions

Canada

a nation in northern North America

Canton

a city on the Zhu Jiang delta in southern China

Caribbean

region including the Caribbean Islands

Carthage

an ancient city state on the north African coast near modern Tunis; founded by Phoenicians; destroyed and rebuilt by Romans; razed by Arabs in 697

caste system

social structure in which classes are determined by heredity

castle

a large building formerly occupied by a ruler and fortified against attack

Cayuga

a member of an Iroquoian people formerly living around Cayuga Lake in New York State

Central Africa

a landlocked country in central Africa

Central America

the isthmus joining North America and South America

Central Powers

in World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies

century

a period of 100 years

ceremony

a formal event performed on a special occasion

Cesar Chavez

United States labor leader who organized farm workers

chariot

a two-wheeled, horse-drawn vehicle

Charlemagne

king of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor

Cherokee

a member of an Iroquoian people formerly living in the Appalachian Mountains but now chiefly in Oklahoma

Chickasaw

a member of the Muskhogean people formerly living in northern Mississippi

China

a communist nation that covers a vast territory in eastern Asia; the most populous country in the world

chivalry

the medieval principles governing knightly conduct

Christian

a religious person who believes Jesus is the savior

Christianity

a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior

Christmas

a Christian holiday celebrating the birth of Christ

Christopher Columbus

Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)

chronology

an arrangement of events in time

Cicero

a Roman statesman and orator remembered for his mastery of Latin prose (106-43 BC)

Cincinnatus

Roman statesman regarded as a model of simple virtue

Cinco de Mayo

the fifth of May which is observed in Mexico and Mexican-American communities in the United States to commemorate the Mexican victory over the French in the Battle of Puebla in 1862

citizenship

membership in a state with rights and duties

city

a large and densely populated urban area

civil war

a war between factions in the same country

class

a collection of things sharing a common attribute

Cold War

a state of political hostility that existed from 1945 until 1990 between countries led by the Soviet Union and countries led by the United States

colonist

one who settles or establishes a settlement in a new region

colony

a group of organisms of the same type living together

Columbus

Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)

Common Era

of the period coinciding with the Christian era

common good

the good of a community

common man

a person who holds no title

communism

a theory favoring collectivism in a classless society

community

a group of people living in a particular local area

compass

navigational instrument for finding directions

computer technology

the activity of designing and constructing and programming computers

Confederacy

the southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861

Confederate Army

the southern army during the American Civil War

Confucianism

the teachings of Confucius emphasizing love for humanity

Confucius

Chinese philosopher whose ideas and sayings were collected after his death and became the basis of a philosophical doctrine known a Confucianism (circa 551-478 BC)

conquest

the act of defeating and taking control of

Constantine

Emperor of Rome who stopped the persecution of Christians and in 324 made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire; in 330 he moved his capital from Rome to Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople (280-337)

Constitution

the constitution written at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787 and subsequently ratified by the original thirteen states

constitution

the act of forming or establishing something

Constitutional Convention

the convention of United States statesmen who drafted the United States Constitution in 1787

convent

a religious residence especially for nuns

Copernicus

Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)

corruption

use of a position of trust for dishonest gain

cotton gin

a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers

country

the territory occupied by a nation

country of origin

the country where you were born

court

an assembly to conduct judicial business

cowboy

a hired hand who tends cattle and performs other duties on horseback

craft

the skilled practice of a practical occupation

credibility

the quality of being believable or trustworthy

crop

a cultivated plant that is grown commercially

Cuba

the largest island in the West Indies

cuneiform

an ancient wedge-shaped script used in Mesopotamia

custom

accepted or habitual practice

czar

a male monarch or emperor

dance

taking a series of rhythmical steps in time to music

Daniel Boone

an American pioneer and guide and explorer (1734-1820)

debt

the state of owing something, especially money

decade

a period of 10 years

Declaration of Independence

the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the Colonies from Great Britain

democracy

the orientation of those who favor government by the people

Democratic Party

the older of two major political parties in the United States

developing country

a country that is poor and whose citizens are mostly agricultural workers but that wants to become more advanced socially and economically

development

a process in which something passes to a different stage

Diderot

French philosopher who was a leading figure of the Enlightenment in France; principal editor of an encyclopedia that disseminated the scientific and philosophical knowledge of the time (1713-1784)

diplomacy

negotiation between nations

disagreement

a conflict of people’s opinions or actions or characters

discovery

the act of finding something

disease

an impairment of health

document

a representation of a person’s thinking with symbolic marks

domesticated animal

any of various animals that have been tamed and made fit for a human environment

dust bowl

a region subject to dust storms

Dutch

the people of the Netherlands

earnings

something that remunerates

earthquake

vibration from underground movement along a fault plane

East Africa

a geographical area in eastern Africa

eastern hemisphere

the hemisphere that includes Eurasia and Africa and Australia

Eastern Roman Empire

a continuation of the Roman Empire in the Middle East after its division in 395

economic system

the system of production and distribution and consumption

Edmund Cartwright

English clergyman who invented the power loom (1743-1823)

education

activities that impart knowledge or skill

Egypt

a republic in northeastern Africa known as the United Arab Republic until 1971; site of an ancient civilization that flourished from 2600 to 30 BC

Eleanor Roosevelt

wife of Franklin Roosevelt and a strong advocate of human rights (1884-1962)

electricity

a physical phenomenon that can produce light, heat and power

Ellis Island

an island in New York Bay that was formerly the principal immigration station for the United States

emancipation

freeing someone from the control of another

emperor

the male ruler of an empire

empire

the domain ruled by a single authoritative sovereign

employment

the state of having a job

England

a division of the United Kingdom

Enlightenment

a movement in Europe from about 1650 until 1800 that advocated the use of reason and individualism instead of tradition and established doctrine

entertainment industry

those involved in providing entertainment: radio and television and films and theater

environment

the totality of surrounding conditions

equality

the quality of being the same in quantity, value, or status

era

a period marked by distinctive character

Erie Canal

an artificial waterway connecting the Hudson river at Albany with Lake Erie at Buffalo; built in the 19th century; now part of the New York State Barge Canal

Eurasia

the land mass formed by the continents of Europe and Asia

Europe

the 2nd smallest continent

European Economic Community

an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members

expansion

the act of increasing in size or volume or quantity or scope

expedition

an organized group of people undertaking a journey

explorer

someone who travels to unknown regions to make discoveries

extended family

a family consisting of the nuclear family and their blood relatives

fable

a short moral story

factory

a plant with facilities for manufacturing

family history

part of a patient’s medical history in which questions are asked in an attempt to find out whether the patient has hereditary tendencies toward particular diseases

famine

a severe shortage of food resulting in starvation and death

farm

workplace or land used for growing crops or raising animals

Ferdinand Magellan

Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain

fertilizer

any substance used to improve the quality of soil

folktale

a tale circulated by word of mouth among the common folk

foreign policy

a policy governing international relations

Fourth of July

a legal holiday in the United States

Francisco Franco

Spanish general whose armies took control of Spain in 1939 and who ruled as a dictator until his death (1892-1975)

Frederick Douglass

United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895)

Fredericksburg

a town in northeastern Virginia on the Rappahannock River

freedom

the condition of being free

freedom of religion

a civil right guaranteed by the First Amendment to the US Constitution

freedom of speech

right guaranteed by the 1st Amendment to the US Constitution

French Revolution

the revolution in France against the Bourbons; 1789-1799

frontier

a wilderness at the edge of a settled area of a country

frontiersman

a man who lives on the frontier

Galileo

Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries (1564-1642)

Garibaldi

Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882)

generation

group of genetically related organisms in a line of descent

Genghis Khan

Mongolian emperor whose empire stretched from the Black Sea to the Pacific Ocean (1162-1227)

geography

study of the earth’s surface

geology

science of the history of the earth as recorded in rocks

George Bush

vice president under Reagan and 41st President of the United States (born in 1924)

George W. Bush

43rd President of the United States

George Washington

1st President of the United States

George Washington Carver

United States botanist and agricultural chemist who developed many uses for peanuts and soy beans and sweet potatoes (1864-1943)

Gerald Ford

38th President of the United States

Geronimo

Apache chieftain who raided the white settlers in the Southwest as resistance to being confined to a reservation (1829-1909)

government

the system or form by which a community is ruled

Great Depression

the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s

Great Plains

a vast prairie region extending from Alberta and Saskatchewan and Manitoba in Canada south through the west central United States into Texas; formerly inhabited by Native Americans

Guangzhou

a city on the Zhu Jiang delta in southern China

gunpowder

a mixture of potassium nitrate, charcoal, and sulfur in a 75:15:10 ratio which is used in gunnery, time fuses, and fireworks

hajj

a pilgrimage to Mecca that is a religious duty for Muslims

Hanging Gardens of Babylon

a terraced garden at Babylon watered by pumps from the Euphrates; construction attributed to Nebuchadnezzar around 600 BC

Harlem Renaissance

a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished

Harriet Tubman

United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)

Hawaii

a state in the United States in the central Pacific on the Hawaiian Islands

hemisphere

half of a sphere

Henri Matisse

French painter and sculptor; leading figure of fauvism

Henry Ford

United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947)

Herbert Hoover

31st President of the United States

heroism

exceptional courage when facing danger

hieroglyphic

a writing system using picture symbols

Hinduism

a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and based on a caste system; it is characterized by a belief in reincarnation, by a belief in a supreme being of many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a desire for liberation from earthly evils

Hispanic American

an American whose first language is Spanish

historian

a person who is an authority on the past and who studies it

historical document

writing having historical value

history

a record or narrative description of past events

holiday

leisure time away from work devoted to rest or pleasure

home front

the civilian population of a country at war

homeless

without nationality or citizenship

hominid

a member of a family of primate mammals that includes humans

Hopi

a member of the Shoshonean people of northeastern Arizona

household appliance

an appliance that does a particular job in the home

housing

structures collectively in which people are housed

Hundred Years’ War

the series of wars fought intermittently between France and England; 1337-1453

hunger

a physiological need for food

hymn

a song of praise, especially a religious song

immigrant

a person who comes to a country in order to settle there

immigration

movement of persons into a place

independence

freedom from control or influence of another or others

India

a republic in the Asian subcontinent in southern Asia

Indian Ocean

the 3rd largest ocean

Indonesia

a republic in southeastern Asia on an archipelago including more than 13,000 islands; achieved independence from the Netherlands in 1945; the principal oil producer in the Far East and Pacific regions

Industrial Revolution

the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation

infectious disease

a disease transmitted only by a specific kind of contact

institution

a custom that has been an important feature of some group

interest group

(usually plural) a social group whose members control some field of activity and who have common aims

internet

a worldwide network of computer networks

interpretation

the act of expressing something in an artistic performance

Inuit

a member of a people inhabiting the Arctic

invention

the act of making something new

Ireland

an island comprising the republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland

iron

a heavy ductile magnetic metallic element

Iroquois

a family of North American Indian languages spoken by the Iroquois

Islam

the monotheistic religious system of Muslims

Islamic law

the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed

Israel

an ancient kingdom of the Hebrew tribes at the southeastern end of the Mediterranean Sea; founded by Saul around 1025 BC and destroyed by the Assyrians in 721 BC

Italy

a republic in southern Europe on the Italian Peninsula

Jackie Robinson

United States baseball player

Jacques Cartier

French explorer who explored the St. Lawrence river and laid claim to the region for France (1491-1557)

James Hargreaves

English inventor of the spinning jenny (1720-1778)

James Monroe

5th President of the United States

James Watt

Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)

Japan

a constitutional monarchy occupying the Japanese Archipelago

Jesus of Nazareth

a teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth; his life and sermons form the basis for Christianity (circa 4 BC – AD 29)

Jew

member of a community whose traditional religion is Judaism

Jim Bowie

United States pioneer and hero of the Texas revolt against Mexico; he shared command of the garrison that resisted the Mexican attack on the Alamo where he died (1796-1836)

Jim Crow

barrier preventing blacks from participating in activities

John Adams

2nd President of the United States (1735-1826)

John Glenn

made the first orbital rocket-powered flight by a United States astronaut in 1962; later in United States Senate (1921-)

John Hancock

American revolutionary patriot who was president of the Continental Congress; was the first signer of the Declaration of Independence (1737-1793)

John Henry

hero of American folk tales

Jonas Salk

United States virologist who developed the Salk vaccine that is injected against poliomyelitis (born 1914)

Joseph Stalin

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)

journey

the act of traveling from one place to another

Judaism

the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud

Julius Caesar

conqueror of Gaul and master of Italy (100-44 BC)

justice

the quality of being just or fair

Justinian

Byzantine emperor who held the eastern frontier of his empire against the Persians; codified Roman law in 529; his general Belisarius regained North Africa and Spain (483-565)

Kaaba

(Islam) a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine; believed to have been given by Gabriel to Abraham; Muslims turn in its direction when praying

King James I

the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1625 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625; he was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and he succeeded Elizabeth I; he alienated the British Parliament by claiming the divine right of kings (1566-1625)

kingdom

the domain ruled by a monarch

knight

a person of noble birth trained to arms and chivalry

Know-Nothing Party

a former political party in the United States

Korea

an Asian peninsula (off Manchuria) separating the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan; the Korean name is Dae-Han-Min-Gook or Han-Gook

labor

any piece of work that is undertaken or attempted

Labor Day

first Monday in September in the United States and Canada

labor movement

an organized attempt by workers to improve their status by united action (particularly via labor unions) or the leaders of this movement

landowner

a holder or proprietor of land

landscape

an expanse of scenery that can be seen in a single view

Latin America

the parts of North America and South America to the south of the United States where Romance languages are spoken

Latino

a native of Latin America

law

the collection of rules imposed by authority

League of Nations

an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations; although suggested by Woodrow Wilson, the United States never joined and it remained powerless; it was dissolved in 1946 after the United Nations was formed

legend

a story about mythical or supernatural beings or events

Lenin

Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)

Lexington and Concord

the first battle of the American Revolution (April 19, 1775)

Liberty Bell

the bell of Independence Hall

lifestyle

a manner of living that reflects one’s values and attitudes

Lincoln Memorial

memorial building in Washington containing a large marble statue of Abraham Lincoln

literacy

the ability to read and write

Louis Pasteur

French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822-1895)

Louisiana

a state in southern United States on the Gulf of Mexico

Louisiana Purchase

territory in the western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million; extends from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada

lunar year

a period of 12 lunar months

majority rule

the doctrine that the numerical majority of an organized group can make decisions binding on the whole group

Malaysia

a constitutional monarchy in southeastern Asia on Borneo and the Malay Peninsula; achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1957

Mali

a landlocked republic in northwestern Africa

manifest destiny

a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable

manor

the landed estate of a lord, including the house on it

manufacturing

the act of making something (a product) from raw materials

Marco Polo

Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324)

Marcus Aurelius

Emperor of Rome

Marie Curie

French chemist who won two Nobel prizes

Mary McLeod Bethune

United States educator who worked to improve race relations and educational opportunities for Black Americans (1875-1955)

mass production

the production of large quantities of a standardized article

Memorial Day

legal holiday in the United States, last Monday in May

merchant

a businessperson engaged in retail trade

Mesoamerica

Mexico and Central America

Mesopotamia

the land between the Tigris and Euphrates

Mexico

a republic in southern North America

middle

an area that is approximately central within some larger region

middle class

the social class between the lower and upper classes

Middle East

the area around the eastern Mediterranean

migrant

traveler who moves from one region or country to another

migration

the movement of persons from one locality to another

mill

a facility for manufacturing

missionary

someone sent on an assignment to a foreign country

Missouri Compromise

an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories

modernization

the act of making up-to-date in appearance or behavior

Mohawk

a member of the Iroquoian people formerly living along the Mohawk River in New York State

monk

a male religious living in a cloister and devoting himself to contemplation and prayer and work

Monroe Doctrine

an American foreign policy opposing interference in the western hemisphere from outside powers

monument

a structure erected to commemorate persons or events

Mormon

a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints

Moslem

a believer in or follower of Islam

mother country

the country where you were born

motive

the reason that arouses action toward a desired goal

motto

a favorite saying of a sect or political group

mountain man

a man who lives on the frontier

Mt. Rushmore

a mountain in the Black Hills of South Dakota

Muhammad

the Arab prophet who, according to Islam, was the last messenger of Allah (570-632)

mummification

the act of embalming, drying, and wrapping a dead body

Muslim

a believer in or follower of Islam

myth

a traditional story serving to explain a world view

Napoleon Bonaparte

French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)

nation

a politically organized body of people under a government

national flag

an emblem flown as a symbol of nationality

national holiday

authorized by law and limiting work or official business

national park

a tract of land declared by the national government to be public property

Native American

of or pertaining to American Indians or their culture or languages

natural resource

resources (actual and potential) supplied by nature

navigation

the guidance of ships or airplanes from place to place

Neanderthal

extinct robust human of Middle Paleolithic in Europe and western Asia

Nero

Roman Emperor notorious for his monstrous vice and fantastic luxury (was said to have started a fire that destroyed much of Rome in 64) but the Roman Empire remained prosperous during his rule (37-68)

Netherlands

a constitutional monarchy in western Europe on the North Sea

New Deal

the economic policy of F. D. Roosevelt

New England

a region of northeastern United States comprising Maine and New Hampshire and Vermont and Massachusetts and Rhode Island and Connecticut

New Mexico

a state in southwestern United States on the Mexican border

New Orleans

a port and largest city in Louisiana

New Testament

the collection of books of the Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, the Pauline and other epistles, and Revelation; composed soon after Christ’s death; the second half of the Christian Bible

New Zealand

an independent country within the British Commonwealth

newcomer

a recent arrival

Newton

English mathematician and physicist

Nez Perce

a member of a tribe of the Shahaptian people living on the pacific coast

nonviolent resistance

peaceful resistance to a government by fasting or refusing to cooperate

norm

a standard or model or pattern regarded as typical

North Africa

an area of northern Africa between the Sahara and the Mediterranean Sea

North America

a continent (the third largest) in the western hemisphere connected to South America by the Isthmus of Panama

Northeast

the northeastern region of the United States

Nubia

an ancient region of northeastern Africa on the Nile

occupation

the principal activity in one’s life to earn money

Oceania

a large group of islands in the south Pacific including Melanesia and Micronesia and Polynesia (and sometimes Australasia and the Malay Archipelago)

Oneida

a member of the Iroquoian people formerly living east of Lake Ontario

Onondaga

a member of the Iroquoian people formerly living between Lake Champlain and the Saint Lawrence River

Oregon

a state in northwestern United States on the Pacific

origin

the place where something begins

Ottoman Empire

a Turkish sultanate of southwestern Asia and northeastern Africa and southeastern Europe; created by the Ottoman Turks in the 13th century and lasted until the end of World War I; although initially small it expanded until it superseded the Byzantine Empire

outlaw

a criminal, especially one on the run from police

P. T. Barnum

United States showman who popularized the circus (1810-1891)

Pablo Picasso

prolific and influential Spanish artist who lived in France

Palestine

an ancient country in southwestern Asia on the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea; a place of pilgrimage for Christianity and Islam and Judaism

Panama Canal

a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)

Paris

(Greek mythology) the prince of Troy who abducted Helen from her husband Menelaus and provoked the Trojan War

past

earlier than the present time; no longer current

patriot

one who loves and defends his or her country

Paul Bunyan

a legendary giant lumberjack of the north woods of the United States and Canada

Paul the Apostle

a Christian missionary to the Gentiles

peacekeeper

someone who maintains tranquility

Pearl Harbor

a harbor on Oahu to the west of Honolulu

peasant

one of a class of agricultural laborers

Pennsylvania

a Mid-Atlantic state; one of the original 13 colonies

Peru

a republic in western South America

Pharaoh

the title of the ancient Egyptian kings

Philadelphia

the largest city in Pennsylvania

Phoenicia

an ancient maritime country (a collection of city states) at eastern end of the Mediterranean

photograph

a representation of a person or scene in the form of a print

physical geography

the study of physical features of the earth’s surface

pictograph

a graphic character used in picture writing

pilgrim

someone who journeys in foreign lands

pioneer

one the first colonists or settlers in a new territory

plague

any large-scale calamity

plantation

an estate where cash crops are grown on a large scale

Plymouth

a town in Massachusetts founded by Pilgrims in 1620

point of view

a mental position from which things are perceived

pollution

contamination of the natural environment

Pompeii

ancient city to the southeast of Naples that was buried by a volcanic eruption from Vesuvius

pony express

express mail carried by relays of riders on horseback

population

the people who inhabit a territory or state

population growth

increase in the number of people who inhabit a territory or state

pottery

objects made from clay and baked in a kiln

poverty

the state of having little or no money and possessions

prairie

a treeless grassy plain

printing press

a machine used for printing

production

the act or process of making something

prohibition

the action of forbidding

protest

a formal and solemn declaration of objection

proverb

a condensed but memorable saying embodying an important fact

Pueblo

a member of any of about two dozen Native American peoples called `Pueblos’ by the Spanish because they live in pueblos (villages built of adobe and rock)

Puerto Rico

a self-governing commonwealth associated with the United States occupying the island of Puerto Rico

radio

medium for communication

Ramadan

the ninth month of the Islamic calendar

ranching

farming for the raising of livestock (particularly cattle)

rapid transit

an urban public transit system using underground or elevated trains

Rasputin

Siberian peasant monk who was religious advisor in the court of Nicholas II; was assassinated by Russian noblemen who feared that his debauchery would weaken the monarchy (1872-1916)

Reconstruction

the period after the American Civil War when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union; 1865-1877

recreation

an activity that diverts or amuses or stimulates

reform

make changes for improvement to remove abuse and injustices

Reformation

a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches

reformer

a disputant who advocates reform

region

the extended spatial location of something

religion

a strong belief in supernatural powers that control destiny

Renaissance

period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages

reservation

the act of setting aside for some future occasion

resistance

any mechanical force that tends to retard or oppose motion

responsibility

the social force that binds you to a course of action

revolution

a single complete turn

Richard Henry Lee

leader of the American Revolution who proposed the resolution calling for independence of the American Colonies (1732-1794)

Richard Nixon

vice president under Eisenhower and 37th President of the United States; resigned after the Watergate scandal in 1974 (1913-1994)

right to vote

a legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US Constitution; guaranteed to women by the 19th amendment

ritual

the prescribed procedure for conducting religious ceremonies

Roman Empire

an empire established by Augustus in 27 BC and divided in AD 395 into the Western Roman Empire and the eastern or Byzantine Empire; at its peak lands in Europe and Africa and Asia were ruled by ancient Rome

Roman Republic

the ancient Roman state from 509 BC until Augustus assumed power in 27 BC; was governed by an elected Senate but dissatisfaction with the Senate led to civil wars that culminated in a brief dictatorship by Julius Caesar

Rome

capital and largest city of Italy

Ronald Reagan

40th President of the United States (1911-2004)

Rosa Parks

United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national Civil Rights movement (born in 1913)

ruling class

the class of people exerting power or authority

rural area

an area outside of cities and towns

Russia

a federation in northeastern Europe and northern Asia

Sacramento

a city in north central California 75 miles to the northeast of San Francisco on the Sacramento River; capital of California

Sam Houston

United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863)

Samuel Adams

American Revolutionary leader and patriot

San Antonio

a city of south central Texas

San Francisco

a port in western California near the Golden Gate that is one of the major industrial and transportation centers; it has one of the world’s finest harbors; site of the Golden Gate Bridge

Santa Fe

capital of the state of New Mexico

Scandinavia

a group of culturally related countries in northern Europe

Scipio Africanus

Roman general who commanded the invasion of Carthage in the second Punic War and defeated Hannibal at Zama (circa 237-183 BC)

sculpture

a three-dimensional work of plastic art

Seneca

a member of the Iroquoian people formerly living in New York State south of Lake Ontario

serf

a person bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord

services

performance of duties or provision of space and equipment helpful to others

settlement

the act of colonizing; the establishment of colonies

settler

a person who resides in a new colony or country

Seven Years’ War

a war of England and Prussia against France and Austria

sharecropper

a tenant farmer who owes a portion of each harvest for rent

Shiloh

the second great battle of the American Civil War

Siberia

a vast Asian region of Russia; famous for long cold winters

Singapore

an island to the south of the Malay Peninsula

Sioux

a member of a group of North American Indian peoples who spoke a Siouan language and who ranged from Lake Michigan to the Rocky Mountains

Sitka

a town in southeastern Alaska that was the capital of Russian America and served as the capital of Alaska from 1867 until 1906

slave

a person who is owned by someone

slave trade

traffic in slaves

slogan

a favorite saying of a sect or political group

smuggling

secretly importing prohibited goods or goods on which duty is due

social class

people having the same social, economic, or educational status

society

an extended group having a distinctive cultural organization

Socrates

ancient Athenian philosopher; teacher of Plato and Xenophon

Sojourner Truth

United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883)

solar system

the sun with the celestial bodies that revolve around it

solar year

the time for the earth to make one revolution around the sun, measured between two vernal equinoxes

Solomon

son of David and king of Israel noted for his wisdom

Songhai

a Nilo-Saharan language spoken by the Songhai in Mali and Niger

soup kitchen

a place where food is dispensed to the needy

South America

a continent in the western hemisphere connected to North America by the Isthmus of Panama

South Korea

a republic in the southern half of the Korean Peninsula

South Pacific

that part of the Pacific Ocean to the south of the equator

Southeast Asia

a geographical division of Asia that includes Indochina plus Indonesia and the Philippines and Singapore

Southwest

the southwestern region of the United States generally including New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, Nevada, California, and sometimes Utah and Colorado

Soviet Union

a former communist country in eastern Europe and northern Asia; established in 1922; included Russia and 14 other soviet socialist republics (Ukraine and Byelorussia and others); officially dissolved 31 December 1991

Spain

a parliamentary monarchy in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula; a former colonial power

Spanish Civil War

civil war in Spain in which Franco succeeded in overthrowing the republican government; during the war Spain became a battleground for fascists and socialists from all countries; 1936-1939

Spanish-American War

a war between the United States and Spain in 1898

spectator sport

a sport that many people find entertaining to watch

spinning jenny

an early spinning machine with multiple spindles

St. Augustine

one of the great Fathers of the early Christian church

state

the way something is with respect to its main attributes

Statue of Liberty

a large monumental statue symbolizing liberty on Liberty Island in New York Bay

steam engine

external-combustion engine in which heat is used to raise steam which either turns a turbine or forces a piston to move up and down in a cylinder

steam locomotive

a locomotive powered by a steam engine

steamship

a ship powered by one or more steam engines

Stonehenge

an ancient megalithic monument in southern England

Sub-Saharan Africa

the region of Africa to the south of the Sahara Desert

submarine

a submersible warship usually armed with torpedoes

suburb

a residential district located on the outskirts of a city

Suez Canal

a ship canal in northeastern Egypt linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea

sugar cane

tall tropical southeast Asian grass having stout fibrous jointed stalks; sap is a chief source of sugar

Sunna

(Islam) the way of life prescribed as normative for Muslims on the basis of the teachings and practices of Muhammad and interpretations of the Koran

superstition

an irrational belief arising from ignorance or fear

Supreme Court

the highest federal court in the United States

Susan B. Anthony

United States suffragist (1820-1906)

Swahili

the most widely spoken Bantu languages

symbol

something visible that represents something invisible

Syria

an Asian republic in the Middle East at the east end of the Mediterranean; site of some of the world’s most ancient centers of civilization

tactic

a plan for attaining a particular goal

Taj Mahal

beautiful mausoleum at Agra built by the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan (completed in 1649) in memory of his favorite wife

tall tale

an improbable (unusual or incredible or fanciful) story

technology

the practical application of science to commerce or industry

Tecumseh

a famous chief of the Shawnee who tried to unite Indian tribes against the increasing white settlement (1768-1813)

telegraph

apparatus used to communicate at a distance over a wire

temple

a place of worship

Ten Commandments

the biblical commandments of Moses

tenant

someone who pays rent to use property owned by someone else

territory

a region marked off for administrative or other purposes

Texas

the second largest state

Thanksgiving

fourth Thursday in November in the United States

Theodore Roosevelt

26th President of the United States

Thomas Jefferson

3rd President of the United States

Thomas Nast

United States political cartoonist (1840-1902)

Timbuktu

a city in central Mali near the Niger river

tobacco

aromatic annual or perennial herbs and shrubs

Tokyo

the capital and largest city of Japan

tolerance

willingness to respect the beliefs or practices of others

tool

an implement used to perform a task or job

town

an urban area with a fixed boundary that is smaller than a city

trade

the commercial exchange of goods and services

trade route

a route followed by traders (usually in caravans)

tradition

a specific practice of long standing

trail

a path or track

transportation

the act of moving something from one location to another

tribute

something given or done as an expression of esteem

Turkey

a Eurasian republic in Asia Minor and the Balkans

twentieth century

the century from 1901 to 2000

Underground Railroad

secret aid to escaping slaves that was provided by abolitionists in the years before the American Civil War

unification

the act of making or becoming a single entity

Union Army

the northern army during the American Civil War

United Nations

an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security

United States

North American republic containing 50 states – 48 conterminous states in North America plus Alaska in northwest North America and the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean; achieved independence in 1776

United States Constitution

the constitution written at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787 and subsequently ratified by the original thirteen states

urban center

a large and densely populated urban area

vaccine

injection of weakened or dead microbes to create antibodies

Versailles

a city in north central France near Paris

Veterans Day

a legal holiday in the United States

Vicksburg

a town in western Mississippi on bluffs above the Mississippi River to the west of Jackson; focus of an important campaign during the American Civil War as the Union fought to control the Mississippi River and so to cut the Confederacy into two halves

Vietnam

a communist state in Indochina on the South China Sea

Vietnam War

a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States

volunteer

a person who performs work done by choice

vote

a choice made by counting people in favor of alternatives

war

the waging of armed conflict against an enemy

War of 1812

a war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France

Watergate

a political scandal involving abuse of power and bribery and obstruction of justice; led to the resignation of Richard Nixon in 1974

weaving

creating fabric

West Africa

an area of western Africa between the Sahara Desert and the Gulf of Guinea

western hemisphere

the hemisphere that includes North America and South America

Western Roman Empire

the western part after the Roman Empire was divided in 395

wheel

a simple machine consisting of a circular frame with spokes (or a solid disc) that can rotate on a shaft or axle (as in vehicles or other machines)

White House

the government building that serves as the residence and office of the President of the United States

William the Conqueror

duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England; he defeated Harold II at the battle of Hastings in 1066 and introduced many Norman customs into England (1027-1087)

Winston Churchill

British statesman and leader during World War II

Woodrow Wilson

28th President of the United States

worker

a person who works at a specific occupation

workplace

a place where work is done

World War I

a war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918

World War II

a war between the Allies and the Axis from 1939 to 1945

written language

communication by means of written symbols

written record

a written document preserving knowledge of facts or events

year

the period of time that it takes for a planet (as, e.g., Earth or Mars) to make a complete revolution around the sun

yesterday

the day immediately before today