Florida EOC Biology 1 – 50 Words


ecologist

a biologist who studies organisms and their environment

A team of ecologists observed feeding patterns of several populations in the desert.
ecosystem

organisms interacting with their physical environment

Which of the following best explains the difference in the amount of available energy in the trophic levels of the desert ecosystem?
dense

having high compaction or concentration

There is less energy available in the producers because their tissues are less dense than those at higher trophic levels.
organism

a living thing that can act or function independently

There is more available energy in the birds of prey because they have greater muscle mass for storing energy than organisms in lower trophic levels have.
metabolism

the organic processes that are necessary for life

There is less available energy in the fourth trophic level because of the loss of energy through metabolism in each of the lower trophic levels.
property

a basic or essential attribute shared by members of a class

Its special properties make water the single most important molecule in plant life.
molecule

the simplest structural unit of an element or compound

Its special properties make water the single most important molecule in plant life.
solvent

capable of meeting financial obligations

Which of the following properties of water enable it to move from the roots to the leaves of plants?
A possible answer: Water is an excellent solvent.
exhibit

show; make visible or apparent

Which of the following properties of water enable it to move from the roots to the leaves of plants?
A possible answer: Water exhibits cohesive behavior.
cohesive

sticking together

Which of the following properties of water enable it to move from the roots to the leaves of plants?
A possible answer: Water exhibits cohesive behavior.
osmosis

diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane

An osmosis investigation was conducted using chicken eggs to represent cells with semipermeable membranes.
membrane

a sheet of tissue that lines or connects organs or cells

An osmosis investigation was conducted using chicken eggs to represent cells with semipermeable membranes.
permeable

allowing fluids or gases to pass or diffuse through

An osmosis investigation was conducted using chicken eggs to represent cells with semipermeable membranes.
solution

a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances

Each egg was then placed in one of three different solutions for 24 hours.
table

a set of data arranged in rows and columns

The table below shows the results of the investigation.
investigation

an inquiry into unfamiliar or questionable activities

The table below shows the results of the investigation.
experiment

the act of conducting a controlled test or investigation

Based on this experiment, which of the following should be inferred about cells with semipermeable membranes?
infer

conclude by reasoning

Based on this experiment, which of the following should be inferred about cells with semipermeable membranes?
substance

a particular kind of matter with uniform properties

Substances other than water may also cross the cell membrane.
concentration

the strength of a solution

Water enters the cell when placed in environments of high water concentration.
theory

a belief that can guide behavior

One of the accepted scientific theories describing the origin of life on Earth is known as chemical evolution.
origin

the source of something’s existence or from which it derives

According to this theory, which of the following events would need to occur first for life to evolve?
A possible answer: Origin of genetic material.
synthesis

the process of producing a chemical compound

According to this theory, which of the following events would need to occur first for life to evolve?
A possible answer: Synthesis of organic molecules.
probability

a measure of how likely it is that some event will occur

Which of the following describes the probability of hemophilia in the offspring of a man who does not have hemophilia and a woman who is a heterozygous carrier?
illustration

a visual representation to make a subject easy to understand

To answer the question, refer to the following passage and illustration.
component

one of the individual parts making up a larger entity

The sodium-potassium ion pump found in some cell membranes is made of which of the following basic structural components?
primary

of first rank or importance or value

What is a primary function of the cell membrane?
generate

produce, as energy

What is a primary function of the cell membrane?
A possible answer: Generating energy from mineral nutrients.
mineral

relating to solid homogeneous inorganic substances

What is a primary function of the cell membrane?
A possible answer: Generating energy from mineral nutrients.
nutrient

any substance that can be metabolized to give energy

What is a primary function of the cell membrane?
A possible answer: Generating energy from mineral nutrients.
evolution

sequence of events involved in the development of a species

The scientific theory of evolution is supported by different types of evidence.
evidence

knowledge on which to base belief

The scientific theory of evolution is supported by different types of evidence.
diagram

a drawing intended to explain how something works

The diagrams below show the skeletons of two different animal species.
species

taxonomic group whose members can interbreed

The diagrams below show the skeletons of two different animal species.
provide

give something useful or necessary to

How does comparing the skeletons of these animals provide support for the scientific theory of evolution?
support

structure that holds up or provides a foundation

How does comparing the skeletons of these animals provide support for the scientific theory of evolution?
relationship

a state involving dealings between people, parties, or ideas

The diagram below shows the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration and the organelles in which they occur.
photosynthesis

synthesis of compounds in plants aided by radiant energy

The diagram below shows the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration and the organelles in which they occur.
respiration

process converting nutrients into energy in a cell

The diagram below shows the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration and the organelles in which they occur.
organelle

a specialized part of a cell; analogous to an organ

The diagram below shows the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration and the organelles in which they occur.
convert

change the nature, purpose, or function of something

HCl converts pepsinogen into pepsin, an enzyme that digests proteins in the stomach.
enzyme

a complex protein produced by cells that acts as a catalyst

HCl converts pepsinogen into pepsin, an enzyme that digests proteins in the stomach.
replicate

reproduce or make an exact copy of

Which of the following most likely happens to pepsin as it enters the small intestine?
A possible answer: It begins to replicate.
gene

part of DNA controlling physical characteristics and growth

Genes for medically important proteins can be cloned and inserted into bacteria, as shown in the diagram below.
protein

an organic compound essential to living cells

Genes for medically important proteins can be cloned and inserted into bacteria, as shown in the diagram below.
bacteria

single-celled organisms that can cause disease

Genes for medically important proteins can be cloned and inserted into bacteria, as shown in the diagram below.
recognize

detect with the senses

Why can bacteria recognize a human gene and then produce a human protein?
produce

bring forth or yield

Why can bacteria recognize a human gene and then produce a human protein?
chromosome

a threadlike strand of DNA that carries genes

Why can bacteria recognize a human gene and then produce a human protein?
A possible answer: Bacterial cells and human cells contain the same kind of chromosomes.
energy

a healthy capacity for vigorous activity

The energy pyramid shown below depicts the feeding patterns the ecologists observed.



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