GMAT – Lyme Disease – 42 Words

virulent

extremely poisonous or injurious; producing venom

(A) The inadvertent introduction of Lyme disease bacteria to the United States (B) The inability of modern sanitation methods to eradicate Lyme disease bacteria (C) A genetic mutation in Lyme disease bacteria that makes them more virulent (D) The spread of Lyme disease bacteria from infected humans to noninfected humans (E) An increase in the number of humans who encounter deer ticks
infer

conclude by reasoning

It can be inferred from the passage that Lyme disease has become prevalent in parts of the United States because of which of the following?
dissemination

the act of dispersing or diffusing something

The stage is now set in the United States for a dengue epidemic (30) because of the inadvertent introduction and wide dissemination of another mosquito, Aedes albopictus.
recreational

of or relating to an activity that diverts or amuses

It occurred only sporadically during the late nineteenth century but has recently become (20) prevalent in parts of the United States, largely due to an increase in the deer population that occurred simultaneously with the growth of the suburbs and increased outdoor recreational activities in the deer’s habitat.
proliferate

grow rapidly

Similarly, an outbreak of dengue (25) hemorrhagic fever became an epidemic in Asia in the 1950s because of ecological changes that caused Aedes aegypti, the mosquito that transmits the dengue virus, to proliferate.
inadvertent

happening by chance or unexpectedly or unintentionally

The stage is now set in the United States for a dengue epidemic (30) because of the inadvertent introduction and wide dissemination of another mosquito, Aedes albopictus.
sporadically

in an irregular or unpredictable manner

It occurred only sporadically during the late nineteenth century but has recently become (20) prevalent in parts of the United States, largely due to an increase in the deer population that occurred simultaneously with the growth of the suburbs and increased outdoor recreational activities in the deer’s habitat.
typhoid

infection marked by intestinal inflammation and ulceration

Thus, the hygiene that helped prevent typhoid epidemics (15) indirectly fostered a paralytic polio epidemic.
eradicate

destroy completely, as if down to the roots

(A) The inadvertent introduction of Lyme disease bacteria to the United States (B) The inability of modern sanitation methods to eradicate Lyme disease bacteria (C) A genetic mutation in Lyme disease bacteria that makes them more virulent (D) The spread of Lyme disease bacteria from infected humans to noninfected humans (E) An increase in the number of humans who encounter deer ticks
prevalent

most frequent or common

It occurred only sporadically during the late nineteenth century but has recently become (20) prevalent in parts of the United States, largely due to an increase in the deer population that occurred simultaneously with the growth of the suburbs and increased outdoor recreational activities in the deer’s habitat.
passage

the act of moving from one state or place to the next

26
Questions 12-17 refer to the passage above.
transmitted

occurring among members of a family usually by heredity

Another example is Lyme disease, which is caused by bacteria that are transmitted by deer ticks.
encounter

come together

(A) The inadvertent introduction of Lyme disease bacteria to the United States (B) The inability of modern sanitation methods to eradicate Lyme disease bacteria (C) A genetic mutation in Lyme disease bacteria that makes them more virulent (D) The spread of Lyme disease bacteria from infected humans to noninfected humans (E) An increase in the number of humans who encounter deer ticks
latter

the second of two or the second mentioned of two

In analyzing the latter, (5) scientists have discovered the importance of social and ecological factors to epidemics.
mutation

a change or alteration in form or qualities

Line Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemics, some epidemics are caused by bacteria and viruses that have undergone no significant genetic change.
immunity

the condition in which an organism can resist disease

Previously, infection had occurred during infancy, when it typically provided lifelong immunity without paralysis.
exposure

the state of being vulnerable to something

Poliomyelitis, for example, emerged as an epidemic in the United States in the twentieth century; by then, modern sanitation was able to delay exposure to polio until (10) adolescence or adulthood, at which time polio infection produced paralysis.
inhabit

live in; be a resident of

(E) More people began to visit and inhabit areas in which mosquitoes live and breed.
foster

providing nurture though not related by blood or legal ties

Thus, the hygiene that helped prevent typhoid epidemics (15) indirectly fostered a paralytic polio epidemic.
undergo

pass through

Line Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemics, some epidemics are caused by bacteria and viruses that have undergone no significant genetic change.
emerge

come out into view, as from concealment

Poliomyelitis, for example, emerged as an epidemic in the United States in the twentieth century; by then, modern sanitation was able to delay exposure to polio until (10) adolescence or adulthood, at which time polio infection produced paralysis.
adolescent

a juvenile between the onset of puberty and maturity

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)
An outbreak of Lyme disease An outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever An epidemic of typhoid An epidemic of paralytic polio among infants An epidemic of paralytic polio among adolescents and adults
13.
epidemic

a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease

Line Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemics, some epidemics are caused by bacteria and viruses that have undergone no significant genetic change.
simultaneously

at the same instant

It occurred only sporadically during the late nineteenth century but has recently become (20) prevalent in parts of the United States, largely due to an increase in the deer population that occurred simultaneously with the growth of the suburbs and increased outdoor recreational activities in the deer’s habitat.
factor

anything that contributes causally to a result

In analyzing the latter, (5) scientists have discovered the importance of social and ecological factors to epidemics.
prevent

keep from happening or arising; make impossible

Thus, the hygiene that helped prevent typhoid epidemics (15) indirectly fostered a paralytic polio epidemic.
suggest

make a proposal; declare a plan for something

The passage suggests that a lack of modern sanitation would make which of the following most likely to occur?
sanitation

the state of being clean and conducive to health

Poliomyelitis, for example, emerged as an epidemic in the United States in the twentieth century; by then, modern sanitation was able to delay exposure to polio until (10) adolescence or adulthood, at which time polio infection produced paralysis.
tick

a metallic tapping sound

Another example is Lyme disease, which is caused by bacteria that are transmitted by deer ticks.
breed

cause to procreate (animals)

(E) More people began to visit and inhabit areas in which mosquitoes live and breed.
refer

make a remark that calls attention to

26
Questions 12-17 refer to the passage above.
adolescence

the period between the beginning of puberty and adulthood

Poliomyelitis, for example, emerged as an epidemic in the United States in the twentieth century; by then, modern sanitation was able to delay exposure to polio until (10) adolescence or adulthood, at which time polio infection produced paralysis.
ecological

characterized by the interdependence of living organisms

In analyzing the latter, (5) scientists have discovered the importance of social and ecological factors to epidemics.
paralysis

loss of the ability to move a body part

Poliomyelitis, for example, emerged as an epidemic in the United States in the twentieth century; by then, modern sanitation was able to delay exposure to polio until (10) adolescence or adulthood, at which time polio infection produced paralysis.
virus

infectious agent that replicates itself within living hosts

Line Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemics, some epidemics are caused by bacteria and viruses that have undergone no significant genetic change.
bacteria

single-celled organisms that can cause disease

Line Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses can lead to epidemics, some epidemics are caused by bacteria and viruses that have undergone no significant genetic change.
adulthood

the period of time in life after physical growth has stopped

Poliomyelitis, for example, emerged as an epidemic in the United States in the twentieth century; by then, modern sanitation was able to delay exposure to polio until (10) adolescence or adulthood, at which time polio infection produced paralysis.
habitat

the type of environment in which an organism normally lives

It occurred only sporadically during the late nineteenth century but has recently become (20) prevalent in parts of the United States, largely due to an increase in the deer population that occurred simultaneously with the growth of the suburbs and increased outdoor recreational activities in the deer’s habitat.
ecological

characterized by the interdependence of living organisms

ecology

the environment as it relates to living organisms

Lyme disease

an acute inflammatory disease characterized by a rash with joint swelling and fever; caused by bacteria carried by the bite of a deer tick

deer tick

a northeastern tick now recognized as same species as Ixodes scapularis
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