GMAT By Pongpon – 160 Words

integrating

the action of incorporating a racial or religious group into a community

The essential relationship between indigenous peoples and the physical geography that they inhabit has provided an integrating experience for both the tribal group’s identity as well as the individual’s identity development.
well-worn

showing signs of much wear or use

Whether one is considering the Sioux of the Great Plains, the Cherokee of the Southeast, or the Iroquois of the Northeast, tribes traveled a well-worn path throughout their home ranges, following large game during the summer, returning to fertile wild fruit or vegetable patches in the autumn, or simply moving to warmer climates during winter months.
traverse

travel across or pass over

Since each tribe followed a predictable annual migratory cycle, the geography and landscape it traversed provided a unifying experience for all members of the tribe, even across generations.
unifying

tending to become one

Since each tribe followed a predictable annual migratory cycle, the geography and landscape it traversed provided a unifying experience for all members of the tribe, even across generations.
backdrop

scenery hung at back of stage

It was against this backdrop of tribal identity, grounded in the landscape, that each individual came to understand his or her own identity formation.
shoulder

carry a burden, either real or metaphoric

the eventual success of companies that shouldered the investment costs of expanding long-distance calling networks across the country was far from assured.
onerous

burdensome or difficult to endure

By early 1915, the use of audions, line amplifiers capable of further propagating a signal, and loading coils, inductors that reduce audio distortion on amplified lines, allowed truly transcontinental communication from New York to San Francisco, but it was the automation of the system, eliminating the onerous costs of live operators, that eventually justified companies’ investments in what became a transformative technology of the twentieth century.
pandemic

an outbreak of disease that is geographically widespread

The infamous flu of 1918 – 1919 has been one of the most widely studied influenza pandemics in world history, but although there is little debate regarding the severity of the disease, there is considerable disagreement over the origins of this deadly, worldwide catastrophe.
confluence

a place where things merge or flow together

Interestingly, whether Oxford or Crosby is correct regarding the virus’s origin, it was a near perfect confluence of circumstances, again centered around the troops of World War I, that exacerbated the mortality rate of the pandemic.
exacerbate

make worse

Interestingly, whether Oxford or Crosby is correct regarding the virus’s origin, it was a near perfect confluence of circumstances, again centered around the troops of World War I, that exacerbated the mortality rate of the pandemic.
glaring

shining intensely

American discount airlines’ success is impressive but several glaring problems with their business model loom large over their horizon.
unmitigated

not diminished or moderated in intensity or severity

These frugal airlines charge extra fees for services like checked luggage and the privilege of choosing a seat assignment and jealously guard their non-refundable fares even when the customer is forced to miss his flight due to unmitigated circumstances.
frugal

avoiding waste

These frugal airlines charge extra fees for services like checked luggage and the privilege of choosing a seat assignment and jealously guard their non-refundable fares even when the customer is forced to miss his flight due to unmitigated circumstances.
extant

still in existence; not extinct or destroyed or lost

Ecosystem ecologists are growing increasingly concerned about the often unpredictable consequences of losing top-level predators to extinction; however, this heightened attention to such a poorly understood question is at least allowing the scientific community to focus on changes to ecosystems while they are extant rather than after it is too late.
discursive

tending to cover a wide range of subjects

The overarching implications of discursive constructivism are realized in every aspect of reality in which language is involved, since language manifests our conceptual framework.
bestow

give as a gift

Because something is the way it is because we bestow our perceptions onto it via language, examining the philosophy of language proves itself especially important in feminist discourse.
congenial

suitable to your needs

Some feminists have advanced the notion of formulating a new reality more congenial to women by which women will liberate themselves from oppressive patriarchal discourses and thrive with their newfound expressive capabilities.
discursive

tending to cover a wide range of subjects

The overarching implications of discursive constructivism are realized in every aspect of reality in which language is involved.
manifest

clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment

The overarching implications of discursive constructivism are realized in every aspect of reality in which language is involved, since language manifests our conceptual framework.
bestow

present

something is the way it is because we bestow our perceptions onto it via language
feminist

a supporter of equal rights for women

Because something is the way it is because we bestow our perceptions onto it via language, examining the philosophy of language proves itself especially important in feminist discourse.
congenial

suitable to your needs

Some feminists have advanced the notion of formulating a new reality more congenial to women by which women will liberate themselves from oppressive patriarchal discourses and thrive with their newfound expressive capabilities.
liberate

grant freedom to; free from confinement

Some feminists have advanced the notion of formulating a new reality more congenial to women by which women will liberate themselves from oppressive patriarchal discourses and thrive with their newfound expressive capabilities.
patriarchal

of a social organization with the male as the head

Some feminists have advanced the notion of formulating a new reality more congenial to women by which women will liberate themselves from oppressive patriarchal discourses and thrive with their newfound expressive capabilities.
rung

one of the crosspieces that form the steps of a ladder

The inherent maleness of language, in light of discursive constructivism, traps women in a hierarchy of patriarchal social relations in which they are delegated to the lower rungs.
imbed

fix or set securely or deeply

Language often represents maleness as the norm, obscures the existence and importance of women, and imbeds a male-centric worldview, creating a picture of the world more suited to men than women.
perpetuate

cause to continue or prevail

The English language, among many others, engages in what Frye calls the absurd practice of sex-marking, in which language assigns a critical importance to gender in situations in which it is, in reality, irrelevant, thereby perpetuating the narrative that men and women are somehow irrevocably and fundamentally dissimilar.
irrevocably

in a manner that cannot be taken back

The English language, among many others, engages in what Frye calls the absurd practice of sex-marking, in which language assigns a critical importance to gender in situations in which it is, in reality, irrelevant, thereby perpetuating the narrative that men and women are somehow irrevocably and fundamentally dissimilar.
semantic

of or relating to meaning or the study of meaning

a plethora of specific terms and usages which stifle women’s equality exist, certain neutral words are undeniably present which have escaped the male bias which afflicts so much of our semantic reality.
mediated

acting or brought about through an intervening agency

Perhaps the best-known genetically mediated disease affecting those of African descent the world over is sickle-cell disease.
dominance

the power or right to give orders or make decisions

The genetic heritability of the disease combined with an unusual pattern of co-dominance has resulted in grossly disproportionate rates of incidence of the disease between varying geographic regions and the ethnic groups residing therein.
therein

(formal) in or into that thing or place

The genetic heritability of the disease combined with an unusual pattern of co-dominance has resulted in grossly disproportionate rates of incidence of the disease between varying geographic regions and the ethnic groups residing therein.
recessive

of or pertaining to a recession

Regardless of ethnic background, these individuals who are homozygous for the recessive hemoglobin gene, which causes red blood cells to flex into an abnormally rigid sickle shape, are at risk for many seemingly unrelated life-threatening complications.
endemic

native to or confined to a certain region

What makes this genetically mediated condition unique is that individuals who are heterozygous, who have one normal hemoglobin gene and one mutated hemoglobin gene, actually receive a benefit from the mutated gene if they reside in areas of the world where malaria is endemic.
asymptomatic

having no signs or manifestations of an illness or disease

Interestingly, individuals who are heterozygous are typically asymptomatic relative to their homozygous counterparts, and because the malaria parasite spends a portion of its lifecycle embedded in human red blood cells, the impact of having malformed red blood cells alongside normally functioning red blood cells diminishes the parasites’ ability to reproduce and damage the host.
stricken

grievously affected especially by disease

The protective benefit against malaria in certain regions of the world helps to maintain the mutated gene’s prevalence within those populations; however, the longer it has been since one’s ancestors left malaria-stricken areas of the world the less likely there are to be cases of sickle cell disease in one’s generation.
exert

put to use

This sixteen-fold decrease in the rate of expressed sickle cell disease is believed to be related to the purely disadvantageous selective pressure exerted by a malaria free environment on individuals who possess one mutated hemoglobin gene.
susceptibility

the state of being easily affected

other factors, such as the relativefluidity of intermarriage among ethnic groups within America relative to the more traditionally rigid cultures of equatorial Africa may also play a role in this dramatic difference in sickle cell susceptibility.
adjoin

lie adjacent to another or share a boundary

This information was collected by a group of orbiting spacecrafts, adjoined by telescopic observation of the planet from space and several landers and rovers which explored the planet’s surface.
hurdle

an obstacle that you are expected to overcome

The Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) is the first section of the GMAT. This means that apart from being an important part of your score, it also carries psychological weight as it’s the first hurdle you’ll need to overcome.
critique

a serious examination and judgment of something

In Analysis of an Argument, you have to analyze and critique an argument.
blasphemy

profane language

In ancient times, citizens criticized the leader of a nation with great caution as to do so is considered blasphemy.
envisage

form a mental image of something that is not present

The Queensway Tunnel was built in the 1930s, but by the early 1960s, it was becoming clear that it was carrying much more traffic than had ever been envisaged when it was first opened.
municipality

a local district having powers of self-government

More and more municipalities are passing bans on single-use, disposable plastic bags, the kind most commonly associated with grocery stores and big-box retailers, and as a result, the market for those types of plastic bags, as well as the markets for recycled paper bags and reusable bags are dramatically changing.
truism

an obvious statement of fact

If there is one truism in business, it is that the marketplace is ever-changing and that companies that refuse to adjust to shifting business conditions will soon be left by the wayside; this is as true today of plastic shopping bag manufacturers that decry the trend toward reusable bags as it was for telegraph companies that failed to acknowledge the arrival of the telephone.
decry

express strong disapproval of

If there is one truism in business, it is that the marketplace is ever-changing and that companies that refuse to adjust to shifting business conditions will soon be left by the wayside; this is as true today of plastic shopping bag manufacturers that decry the trend toward reusable bags as it was for telegraph companies that failed to acknowledge the arrival of the telephone.
weather

change under the action or influence of the climate

As the whole industry weathers this upheaval, some companies will fail and some companies will succeed.
upheaval

a violent disturbance

As the whole industry weathers this upheaval, some companies will fail and some companies will succeed.
sway

influence a person or outcome

Often, these very companies are utilizing industry trade groups to attempt to sway consumers against these bans
retrofit

substitute new or modernized parts for older ones

A few corporations have already begun retrofitting some of their factories to produce reusable bags
trumpet

proclaim

Important films trumpet glory and sacrifice.
pacifistic

opposed to war

Ten to fifteen years later, questioning and sometimes pacifistic movies about the conflict dominate.
abound

exist in large quantities

Throughout the majority of the last century, evidence of the cyclical portrayal of war in film abounds.
put forward

propose as a candidate for some honor

All Quiet on the Western Front put forth an anti-war message by displaying the horrors of combat.
despair

the feeling that nothing will turn out well

important pictures again portrayed glories and courage without the questioning or despair.
confusion

a mistake that results from taking one thing to be another

Once again, though, by 1957, films such as The Bridge on the River Kwai won awards for depicting the moral confusion of war.
conviction

an unshakable belief in something without need for proof

Those who later declared this pattern dead based their conviction on their hearts rather than their minds.
fragmented

having been divided; having the unity destroyed

While today’s film industry is more diverse and its audience more culturally fragmented, this cycle largely continues.
premiere

perform a work for the first time

Jarhead,alayereddepictionofthefirstgulfwar, premiered more than ten years after that conflict.
repel

cause to move back by force or influence

Further evidence of this pattern can be seen in the release of Apocalypse Now Redux, which contained additional footage that the producers originally thought would repel audiences.
ambivalent

uncertain or unable to decide about what course to follow

Its portrayal of wars is more ambivalent than in Guadalcanal Dairy.
secretive

reluctant to divulge information

Very little is known about Javan rhinos because they lead secretive and solitary lives in remote jungles.
solitary

not growing or living in groups or colonies

Very little is known about Javan rhinos because they lead secretive and solitary lives in remote jungles.
futile

producing no result or effect

Now, human efforts to save them may well prove futile.
supplement

a quantity added

Rhinos from Java cannot supplement the Vietnamese numbers.
benevolent

showing or motivated by sympathy and understanding

human benevolence may prove little better for these rhinos than past human maltreatment.
demise

the time when something ends

The toad’s demise in the late 1980s was a harbinger of further species extinction in Costa Rica.
harbinger

something indicating the approach of something or someone

The toad’s demise in the late 1980s was a harbinger of further species extinction in Costa Rica.
permeable

allowing fluids or gases to pass or diffuse through

Perhaps amphibians – whose permeable skin makes them sensitive to environmental changes – are the “canary in the coal mine,”
heed

pay close attention to

If amphibians are the biological harbingers of environmental problems, humans would be wise to heed their warning.
brazen

unrestrained by convention or propriety

With the brazen beginnings of Marcel Duchamp, modern art began to uproot our society’s limited conceptions of art and question its very nature.
uproot

destroy completely, as if down to the roots

With the brazen beginnings of Marcel Duchamp, modern art began to uproot our society’s limited conceptions of art and question its very nature.
hallmark

a distinctive characteristic or attribute

Previously, aesthetic principles and specialized artistic skill were the hallmarks of “good” artwork.
deem

judge or regard in a particular way

Now, unlike the Old Masters, modern artists use their considerable artistic talents to beg the questions of the role of the viewer, the function of the artist in society and what can be deemed art.
posit

take as a given; assume as a postulate or axiom

Some modern artists posit that any object may be considered art as long as it is presented as art.
swath

a path or strip

During the early days of the new American republic, when the West meant the Ohio River Valley and the Louisiana Purchase had just brought huge swaths of territory west of the Mississippi River under American control
allure

the power to entice or attract

the South to expand its trading relationships with Northern manufacturers and retailers, and also encouraged urbanization through the allure of East Coast luxury in the Western Territories.
groundbreaking

being or producing something like nothing done or experienced or created before

Initially, the repercussions of Fulton’s groundbreaking invention were largely confined to expanding commercial opportunities for the Southern agrarian economy.
confine

restrict or limit

Initially, the repercussions of Fulton’s groundbreaking invention were largely confined to expanding commercial opportunities for the Southern agrarian economy.
marital

of or relating to the state of marriage

Maybe it was at an annual celebration at the base of a mountain that a marital bond was formed.
embankment

a long artificial mound of stone or earth

henges are circular monuments consisting of earthen embankments and an interior ditch.
ditch

a long narrow excavation in the earth

henges are circular monuments consisting of earthen embankments and an interior ditch.
incarceration

the state of being imprisoned

If Texas were a country, it would have had the highest incarceration rate in the world.
de rigueur

required by etiquette, custom, or fashion

By the early 1990s the IBM ThinkPad had become the norm de rigueur for enterprise solutions,
razor

edge tool used in shaving

IBM and its competitors, the margins for personal computers narrowed to razor thin.
astute

marked by practical hardheaded intelligence

This astute observation of market conditions led IBM to sell off its ThinkPad brand and associated PC market share to Chinese multinational tech firm Lenovo.
pit

a trap in the form of a concealed hole

its engineers have pitted their most advanced artificial intelligence servers against the real world cognitive processes of recognized experts as a means of testing their computers’ capabilities.
confound

be confusing or perplexing to

Any discussion of genetic variation in a large enough population is bound to include confounding variables.
protract

lengthen in time; cause to be or last longer

protracted warfare impacted so many parts of the globe at that time
abstain

refrain from voting

Now it is time to forget those who are abstaining and to focus on the folks going without fear or complaint.
— New York Times (Jul 31, 2016)
temporal

of or relating to or limited by time

The date offers a striking temporal link to the Xia dynasty which, if it existed, is thought to have begun at this time.
— New York Times (Aug 4, 2016)
elucidate

make clear and comprehensible

Elucidating the mechanism responsible for mediating this inverse relationship between RMR and lifespan provides a relatively straightforward explanation for this ‘Rate of Living Theory.’
brewing

the production of malt beverages (as beer or ale) from malt and hops by grinding and boiling them and fermenting the result with yeast

Two possible options are being considered as symbols for the town of Coldbrine. The first is a type of fox that has inhabited the area for many years while the second is a beer keg representing Coldbrine’s long tradition of beer brewing. It is clear that the beer keg will be more easily associated with the town of Coldbrine.
brew

sit or let sit in boiling water so as to extract the flavor

During a dangerous journey through the Himalayas, a fearsome beast whose fangs and claws were stained with blood suddenly leapt on one of the members of the expedition.
stain

make dirty or spotty, as by exposure to air

During the war, no one was allowed more than their ration of food, clothing and fuel.
ration

restrict the consumption of a relatively scarce commodity

Market research of chocolate connoisseurs shows that they aren’t crazy about 85% cocoa content.
connoisseur

an expert able to appreciate a field

Unfortunately, the Grand Cayman Iguana, also known as the Blue Iguana, is one of the most imperiled species on the planet.
imperil

pose a threat to; present a danger to

The museum offers workshops to acquaint children with the world of radio.
acquaint

cause to come to know personally

We have evidence to substantiate the allegations against him.
substantiate

establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts

This would mean that there is no progress at all anywhere and that all corporations stay stagnant, always producing the same products.
stagnant

not growing or changing; without force or vitality

Depression is often hereditary.
intersperse

place between or among

A smile flickered across her face.
hereditary

occurring among people descended from a common ancestor

Research into the concentration ability of students in today’s tech savvy world has found that students are less likely to text messages on their phones during the virtual classes than they are during the real classes.
flicker

flash intermittently

most monkeys travel by swinging from branches, but the flying monkey glides
theorize

construct a hypothesis about

Company B is in the process of developing its flagship product, which, upon release is expected to become a huge success.
premature

uncommonly early or before the expected time

Many consumers are willing to pay extra in order to avoid the hassle of having to purchase, carry, store, and recycle mineral water bottles.
savvy

the ability to shrewdly understand or judge things

Two doctors are under investigation for selling drugs over the internet and could face a disciplinary hearing.
glide

move smoothly and effortlessly

the methods formerly employed by the banks sapped the economy’s foundations and left it vulnerable to radical changes in its monetary system.
casualty

someone injured or killed in an accident

As he left the meeting, he was berated by angry demonstrators.
stifle

impair the respiration of or obstruct the air passage of

She was dubbed by the newspapers “the Angel of Death”.
flagship

the ship that carries the commander of a fleet and flies his flag

Ditches were constructed to channel water away from the buildings.
enchant

cast a spell over someone or something

Of course, she was using the term “massacre” in the figurative sense.
malicious

having the nature of threatening evil

The disease mostly affects people over 50, causing paralysis and uncontrollable tremors.There was a slight tremor in her voice.
hassle

annoy continually or chronically

All the tomato plants are infected with a virus.
disciplinary

relating to discipline in behavior

a dangerous pathogen
jargon

technical terminology characteristic of a particular subject

Two men hijacked a jet travelling to Paris and demanded $125,000.He resents the way his ideas have been hijacked by others in the department.
sap

a person who lacks good judgment or is easily tricked

A journalist managed to infiltrate the powerful drug cartel.
berate

censure severely or angrily

The airline reimbursed me for the amount they had overcharged me.She was reimbursed by the gas company for the damage to her house.
dub

provide (movies) with a soundtrack of a foreign language

The incumbent president faces problems which began many years before he took office.
channel

a deep and relatively narrow body of water

viral infections
figurative

not literal

The prime minister authorized a pre-emptive air strike against the rebels.
tremor

shaking or trembling

Ships were registered abroad to circumvent employment and safety regulations.
infect

communicate a disease to

I’ve never considered my disability a hindrance, but other people have.
pathogen

any disease-producing agent

He has an esoteric collection of old toys and games.
hijack

take arbitrarily or by force

scientific terminology
infiltrate

enter a group or organization in order to spy on the members

There’s hope the countries will reach a settlement without resorting to armed conflict.
reimburse

pay back for some expense incurred

After the newspaper story appeared his reputation was in tatters.
incumbent

currently holding an office

He is fighting extradition to Hong Kong to face trial on fraud charges.
viral

relating to or caused by a virus

The political situation in Somalia is unstable owing to the ability of individual of warlords to maintain powerful armed force.
pre-emptive

designed or having the power to deter or prevent an anticipated situation or occurrence

With all the snow, our daily walks have been severely curtailed.
circumvent

avoid or try to avoid fulfilling, answering, or performing

The value of property has slumped.
hindrance

any obstruction that impedes or is burdensome

You might be eligible for a grant.
esoteric

understandable only by an enlightened inner circle

His contract precludes him from discussing his work with anyone outside the company.
terminology

a system of words used to name things in a discipline

The increase in our profits has been negated by the rising costs of running the business.
resort

act of turning to for assistance

I could just discern a figure in the darkness.
tatter

a small shred of cloth or paper

As the burning plane landed, the terrified passengers scrambled for the door (= tried to reach the door quickly).
fraud

deliberate trickery intended to gain an advantage

He looked ludicrous in that suit!
warlord

supreme military leader exercising civil power in a region especially one accountable to nobody when the central government is weak

The women all think he’s a lovable old rogue.
curtail

terminate or abbreviate before its intended or proper end

Biscuits will stay crisp if you keep them in an airtight container.
slump

fall heavily or suddenly; decline markedly

a pedestrian precinct, a shopping precinct
eligible

qualified for or allowed or worthy of being chosen

There is a quirk in the rules that allows you to invest money without paying tax.
preclude

make impossible, especially beforehand

City Ordinance 126 forbids the parking of cars in this area.
negate

make ineffective by counterbalancing the effect of

His grammar explanations are terribly convoluted.
discern

detect with the senses

The cuts in government funding have had a pernicious effect on local health services.
scramble

move hurriedly

We are asking people to pledge their support for our campaign.
ludicrous

inviting ridicule

He let out a torrent of abuse/angry words.
rogue

a deceitful and unreliable scoundrel

translucent plastic/glass
airtight

completely sealed so as to prevent gas from moving in or out

Keep your letter succinct and to the point.
precinct

an administrative district of a city or town

They are carrying out research on the causes of delinquent behaviour among young people.
delinquent teenagers
quirk

a strange attitude or habit

a Nobel laureate
ordinance

an authoritative rule

He sat up in bed, bewildered, unsure of where he was.
convoluted

highly complex or intricate

pernicious

exceedingly harmful

pledge

promise solemnly and formally

torrent

an overwhelming number or amount

translucent

allowing light to pass through diffusely

succinct

briefly giving the gist of something

delinquent

guilty of a misdeed

laureate

someone honored for great achievements

bewildered

perplexed by many conflicting situations or statements
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