Dictionary of Cryptocurrency and Bitcoin Terms


Keeping all these factors in mind, I have compiled a list of cryptocurrency terms and Bitcoin terminologies that you need to know and understand for a successful outing in the crypto world.

The cryptosphere is getting more crowded than ever. More and more people are joining the space every day with the hopes of making quick money.

However, in the process, they are bombarded with numerous terminologies and crypto jargons that makes most of them feel out of the sink.

When I started, I felt the same. But trust me when I say that learning these new terms and jargons is worth every bit of the hassle. Needless to say, it might seem overwhelming at first, but you will get used to it with time. If you intend to stay in the game, it is very important that you understand the terms used in the cryptosphere.

 

Crypto Exchange
A website that helps one buy/sell cryptocurrencies. Here is a list of top exchanges.


Ethereum

Ethereum is a blockchain-based decentralised platform for apps that run smart contracts, and is aimed at solving issues associated with censorship, fraud and third party interference.


Hybrid PoS/PoW

A hybrid PoS/PoW allows for both Proof of Stake and Proof of Work as consensus distribution algorithms on the network. In this method, a balance between miners and voters (holders) may be achieved, creating a system of community-based governance by both insiders (holders) and outsiders (miners).

1hr
Stands for data for the past 1 hour.

24hr
Stands for data for the past 24 hours.

30d
Stands for data for the past 30 days.

51% Attack
If more than half the computer power or mining hash rate on a network is run by a single person or a single group of people, then a 51% attack is in operation. This means that this entity has full control of the network and can negatively affect a cryptocurrency by taking over mining operations, stopping or changing transactions, and double-spending (reusing) coins.
When more than half of the computing power of a cryptocurrency network is controlled by a single entity or group, this entity or group may issue conflicting transactions to harm the network, should they have the malicious intent to do so.
Cryptocurrency’s strength comes from a distributed computer network. If anybody gains control of more than 50% of them, they control the network and can double spend coins.

7d
Stands for data for the past 7 days.

Address
Cryptocurrency addresses are used to send or receive transactions on the network. An address usually presents itself as a string of alphanumeric characters.
A place where cryptocurrency can be sent to and from, in the form of a string of letters and numbers. A cryptocurrency address can be shared publicly in the form of text or QR code to those who want to send you cryptocurrency.
A string of letters and numbers that are used to receive cryptocurrency. Works similar to a traditional bank account number and can be shared publicly with others.
Every cryptocurrency coin has a unique address that identifies where it sits on the blockchain. It’s this address, this location, at which the coin’s ownership data is stored and where any changes are registered when it is traded. These addresses differ in appearance between cryptocurrencies but are usually a string of more than 30 characters.

Airdrop
This is a marketing campaign that refers to the expedited distribution of a cryptocurrency through a population of people. It usually occurs when the creator of a cryptocurrency provides its coin to low-ranked traders or existing community members in order to build their use and popularity. They are usually given away for free or in exchange for simple tasks like sharing news of the coin with friends.
A marketing campaign that distributes a specific cryptocurrency or token to an audience. It is usually initiated by the creator of a cryptocurrency in order to encourage use and build popularity of the coin or token. Most airdrop campaigns run with mechanics such as receiving coins or tokens in exchange for simple tasks like sharing news, referring friends, or downloading an app.

Algorithm
A process or set of rules to be followed in problem-solving or calculation operations, usually by a computer, although humans tend to follow steps algorithmically as well (let’s say doing math or following a recipe).
Mathematic instructions coded into and implemented by computer software in order to produce a desired outcome.

All Time High (ATH)
Refers to the maximum price of an asset, higher than at any other time in its trading history. Cryptocurrencies have risen dramatically, creating many consecutive ATHs.
The highest price ever achieved by a cryptocurrency.
The highest point (in price, in market capitalization) that a cryptocurrency has been in history. *see All-Time-Low (ATL).

All-Time-Low (ATL)
The lowest point (in price, in market capitalization) that a cryptocurrency has been in history. *see All-Time-High (ATH).
The lowest price ever achieved by a cryptocurrency.

Altcoin
Generally any crypto-currency other than Bitcoin or Ethereum. (Though some Bitcoin folks would probably still say Ethereum is an altcoin)
As Bitcoin is the first cryptocurrency that captured the world’s imagination, all other coins were subsequently termed altcoins”, as in alternative coins”.
When people think cryptocurrency, Bitcoin is usually the first thing that comes to mind, and with good reason
Describes all crytocurrencies that are not Bitcoin – like Ethereum, Litecoin, and Monero. It is short for Alternative Coin (AKA coins that were created after Bitcoin).

Altcoins
Bitcoin was the first and is the most successful of all the cryptocurrencies. All the other coins are grouped together under the category of altcoins. Ethereum, for example, is an altcoin, as is Ripple.
Alternative cryptocurrencies to Bitcoin. Examples: Ethereum, Litecoin, Dogecoin etc.

AML
Acronym for Anti-Money Laundering”

Anarcho-capitalism
A political philosophy and school of thought that believes in removing centralized states in favor of self-ownership, private property and free markets. Many of the early adopters of Bitcoin were proponents of anarcho-capitalism, believing it would give power and control back to the masses.

Anti Money Laundering (AML)
Laws and regulations in the United States and other countries to prevent illegal activities. Compells exchanges and other money transmitters to report suspicious activity.
These are a set of international laws that hope to prevent criminal organizations or individuals from laundering money through cryptocurrencies into real-world cash.
A set of international laws enacted to curtail criminal organizations or individuals laundering money through cryptocurrencies into real-world cash.

API
API stands for Application Programming Interface. It is a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications. APIs specify how software components should interact, such as what data to use and what actions should be taken.

Application Specific Integrated Circuit
A piece of computer hardware – similar to a graphics card or a CPU – that has been designed specifically to mine cryptocurrency. They are built specifically to solve hashing problems efficiently.

Arbitrage
There are multiple exchanges at any given time trading in the same cryptocurrency, and they can do so at different rates. Arbitrage is the act of buying from one exchange and then selling it to the next exchange if there is a margin between the two that is profitable.
Taking advantage of a difference in price of the same commodity on two different exchanges. Often mentioned when it comes to comparing ETH prices on Korean exchanges against US exchanges.
A practice of taking advantage of differences in price of the same commodity in two or more markets or exchanges. For example, cryptocurrency prices on Korean exchanges can be different from those on US exchanges. An arbitrage trader would be in both markets in order to buy in one and sell in another for profit.
Taking advantage of the price difference of an asset on two different markets or exchanges, often internationally. The price difference is used for a quick profit.

Ashdraked
A situation where you lose all your money, more specifically when you lose all your money shorting Bitcoin. This was based on a story of a Romanian trader who continued to short BTC when it went from $300 to $500, since he had made a lot of profit doing so historically. Adapt your trading strategy!

ASIC
Short for ‘Application Specific Integrated Circuit’; it is a mining equipment that is used specifically to mine a certain cryptocurrency. Often compared to GPUs, ASICs are specially created and bought for mining purposes and offer significant efficiency improvements and power savings due to its narrow use case.
Application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) are chipsets built to perform a very specific task. Many ASICs are built to mine cryptocurrency, and are a huge improvement in power consumption and speed over graphics processing units (GPUs) that have been the most common hardware to date.
A type of computer chip. For cryptocurrencies, it’s used to mine new coins efficiently (see mining below). Short for Application Specific Integrated Circuit.

ASIC Miner
An application-specific integrated circuit machine designed specifically for mining cryptocurrencies.

Astroturfing
A deceptive practice where a sponsor is masked or hidden, making it seem as though a marketing message came from and is strongly supported by the community when it is not.

ATH
Acronym for All Time High”
All-Time-High. We’ve gotten a lot of these the past couple months.

ATL
Acronym for All Time Low”

Atomic Swap
A way of letting people directly exchange one type of cryptocurrency for another on a different blockchain or off-chain without a centralized intermediary such as an exchange.

Attestation Ledger
An attestation ledger is an account book designed to provide evidence of individual transactions. It is generally used to attest” that a financial transaction took place, or to prove authenticity of transactions or products.
A distributed ledger that codifies agreements, statements, and other facts into the Blockchain. Can provide evidence to attest that something actually happened.

Bag
A significant quantity of a specific cryptocurrency is considered a bag”. How many depends on the definition of the person using the expression. *see Bagholder.
If you have a large quantity of units in a certain cryptocurrency, you’d have a bag of them.

Bagholder
A person who holds large quantities, or bags, of a cryptocurrency. Often used to describe such a person when the price of that cryptocurrency is declining.
Someone still holding an altcoin after a pump and dump crash. Can also just refer to someone holding a coin that is sinking in value with few future prospects.
Someone still holding an altcoin after a pump and dump crash.
A person who is still holding an asset after a pump and dump scheme

Bear
A person who is pessimistic about market prices and expects them to go down. This person is also known to be bearish about the market and price expectations.

Bear Trap
This is a trick played by a group of traders aimed at manipulating the price of a cryptocurrency. The bear trap is set by this group all selling their cryptocurrency at the same time, which bluffs the market into thinking there is a drop incoming. As a result, other traders sell their assets, further driving the price down. Those who set the trap then release it, buying back their assets, which are now at a lower price. The overall price then rebounds, allowing them to make a profit.

Bear Trap
A technique played by a group of traders, aimed at manipulating the price of a cryptocurrency. The bear trap is set by selling a large amount of the same cryptocurrency at the same time, fooling the market into thinking there is an upcoming price decline. In response, other traders sell their assets, further driving the price down. Those who set the trap then release it, buying back their assets at a lower price. The price then rebounds, allowing them to make a profit.
A false market signal where the rising trend of an asset appears to be turning down, but actually is not. Short sellers are forced to to exit their positions to stop losing money.

Bear/Bearish
If the price of a cryptocurrency has a negative price movement.

Bearish
An expectation that price is going to decrease.
A feeling based on some factors that the the price of a crypto will decrease.

Bit
A sub-unit of bitcoin. 1 bitcoin (BTC) = 1,000,000 bits. You can always buy and sell less than one bitcoin.

Bitcoin
The very first cryptocurrency. It was created in 2008 by an individual or group of individuals operating under the name Satoshi Nakamoto. It was intended to be a peer-to-peer, decentralized electronic cash system.
When the B is capitalized, it represents the overarching concept of Bitcoin: The technology, the community, the protocol, and the software.
Bitcoin is the first decentralised, open source cryptocurrency that runs on a global peer to peer network, without the need for middlemen and a centralised issuer.
Bitcoin is the original form of cryptocurrency; it was developed by a programmer or a group of programmers going by the name Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin is a decentralized cryptocurrency that relies on the blockchain to distribute its ledger and record proof of work.

bitcoin
When the b is not capitalized, it is describing the unit of currency.

bitcoin (lowercase)
When using the word bitcoin as a unit of measure (e.g. 1 bitcoin), it is used in the lower case version. When using Bitcoin as the name, it is spelled in the upper case version.

Bitcoin (uppercase)
The first decentralized cryptocurrency created 2008 by Satoshi Nakamoto. Lets you send and receive money without any middlemen like banks.

Bitcoin ATM (BTM)
A machine from which you can withdraw Bitcoin.

Bitcoin Cash
This cryptocurrency is a hard fork of Bitcoin that was created to decrease fees associated with Bitcoin transactions by increasing block size. It’s also designed to be more spendable than Bitcoin.
A clone (AKA fork) of Bitcoin that focuses on processing high volumes of transactions differently. Created because of disagreements about how to best grow digital currency.

Bitcoin Gold
A clone (AKA fork”) of Bitcoin that focuses on handling high volumes of transactions differently. Similar to Bitcoin Cash and also created because of community disagreements.

Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP)
A technical design document providing information to the Bitcoin community, describing new proposed features, processes or environments affecting the Bitcoin protocol. Suggested changes to the protocol are submitted as a BIP. The BIP author is responsible for soliciting feedback and consensus for his or her suggested improvements within the community, and documenting dissenting opinions.

Bitcoin wallet (Hardware, Software, Mobile wallet)
A physical or software object where you have a combination of public and private key stored. Here you can find a list of best hardware wallets.

BitLicense
The controversial business license issued for cryptocurrency companies in New York. Created and provided by the New York State Department of Financial Services (NYSDFS).

Bits
A sub-unit of one bitcoin. There are 1,000,000 bits in one bitcoin.

Block
The blockchain is made up of blocks. Each block holds a historical database of all cryptocurrency transactions made until the block is full. It’s a permanent record, like a bag of data that can be opened and viewed at any time.
Blocks are packages of data that carry permanently recorded data on the blockchain network.
A group of bundled-up transactions which miners choose to verify.
Blockchains consist of individual blocks that are added to the ledger as they are mined. Once a block has reached a predetermined size (which varies from cryptocurrency to cryptocurrency), it is verified and added to the blockchain.

Block Explorer
An online tool for exploring the blockchain of a cryptocurrency, where you can watch and follow, live, all the transactions happening on the blockchain. Block explorers can serve as blockchain analysis and provide information such as total network hash rate, coin supply, transaction growth, etc.

Block Explorer
Block explorer is an online tool to view all transactions, past and current, on the blockchain. They provide useful information such as network hash rate and transaction growth.
A tool to see detailed information of transactions, accounts, and other activity on a Blockchain. Depending on the cryptocurrency, sweeping data or limited data is available.

Block Halving
Bitcoin’s supply of new coins issued to miners is cut in half about every four years to keep it scarce. This 50% cut is known as the halving. The next halving will be around 2020.

Block Height
Refers to the total number of blocks on a given cryptocurrency blockchain. It starts with the first block, also known as the Genesis Block (Height 0) and counts up from there.
The number of blocks preceding the block in question on the blockchain, or can be thought of as total blocks in the chain before this point.

Block Reward
An incentive for a miner who successfully calculates a valid hash in a block during mining. By contributing to the security and liveness of the chain, the miner is rewarded with this incentive, ensuring that miners continue to act in the best interest of the blockchain by legitimately taking part in the process (instead of hacking it).
It is a reward in the form of native cryptocurrency given to miners for solving a computationally difficult problem. Bitcoin miners now get 12.5 BTC for solving each problem for adding blocks to the blockchain.
A form of incentive for the miner who successfully calculates the hash (verification) in a block. Verification of transactions on the blockchain generates new coins in the process, and the miner is rewarded with a portion of these.
Payment made to the volunteers who offer their computers to facilitate transactions on a blockchain network. The payment can be a mix of new coins and transaction fees.

Block Size
Shows the file size of each block on a blockchain and therefore how many transactions can be bundled and processed in each one. For Bitcoin, the current block size is 1MB.

Blockchain
The blockchain is a digital ledger of all the transactions ever made in a particular cryptocurrency. It’s comprised of individual blocks (see definition above) that are chained to each other through a cryptographic signature. Each time a block’s capacity is reached, a new block is added to the chain. The blockchain is repeatedly copied and saved onto thousands of computers all around the world, and it must always match each copy. As there is no master copy stored in one location, it’s considered decentralized.
The classification of technology that Ethereum falls into. Blockchains are distributed ledgers, secured by cryptography. They are essentially public databases that everyone can access and read, but the data can only be updated by the data owners. Instead of the data residing on a single centralized server, the data is copied across thousands and thousands of computers worldwide.
A blockchain is a shared ledger where transactions are permanently recorded by appending blocks. The blockchain serves as a historical record of all transactions that ever occurred, from the genesis block to the latest block, hence the name blockchain.
A blockchain is a continuously growing, append-only, list of records called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography.

Bollinger Band
A tool developed by Bollinger to help in the recognition of systemic pattern recognition in prices; it is a band that is plotted two standard deviations away from the simple moving average, or exponential moving average in some cases.
A margin around the price of a crypto that helps indicate when a coin is overbought or oversold.

Bots
Automated trading software bots that execute trade orders extremely quickly, based on a preset algorithm of buy-and-sell rules.

Brute Force Attack (BFA)
A method of trial-and-error, in which automated software generates and tries a large number of possible combinations in order to crack a code or key.

BTC
BTC is the short ticker symbol for Bitcoin, which is often used on exchanges and other financial platforms. Bitcoin is the first decentralized cryptocurrency, created 2008.

BTFD
Acronym for Buy The F$%king Dip”

Bubble
A bubble describes a situation where market participants drive prices up above their value, which is usually followed by a steep, rapid drop in prices as the market corrects.

Bug Bounty
A reward offered for finding vulnerabilities and issues in computer code. It is often offered by cryptocurrency companies like protocols, exchanges and wallets to identify potential security breaches or bugs before they are exploited by unfriendly parties.

Bull
A person that is optimistic and confident that market prices will be going up. This person is also known to be bullish about the market and price expectations.

Bull Trap
A false market signal where the falling trend of a asset appears to be turning up, but actually is not. Long buyers can be forced to exit their positions to stop loosing money.

Bull/Bullish
If the price of a cryptocurrency has a positive price movement.

Bullish
An expectation that price is going to increase.
A feeling based on some factors that the price of a crypto will increase.

Burned
When a coin or token has been made permanently unspendable or unusable.
If a coin in any particular cryptocurrency has been made unspendable, it is said to be burned.

Buy The (F*******) Dip (BTD/BTFD)
An enthusiastic exclamation by supporters of a cryptocurrency to buy while prices are at a low point.

Buy the F$%king Dip
A less-than-savory phrase used when you’re (enthusiastically) telling someone a currency has dipped to a low value and should be bought.

Buy Wall
A situation where a large limit order has been placed to buy when a cryptocurrency reaches a certain value. This can sometimes be used by traders to create a certain impression in the market, preventing a cryptocurrency from falling below that value, as demand will likely outstrip supply when the order is executed.
When a large limit order has been placed to buy when a cryptocurrency reaches a certain value, then that is a buy wall. This can prevent a cryptocurrency from falling below that value, as demand will likely outstrip supply when the order is executed.

Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT)
A property of fault-tolerant distributed computing systems, reaching consensus through a mechanism, where components may fail and there may be imperfect information. For example, Bitcoin is Byzantine Fault Tolerant, utilizing the Proof-of-Work system to reach consensus on the blockchain. Its applications are beyond blockchain, including messaging and networking systems, among others.

Byzantine Generals’ Problem
A situation where communication that requires consensus on a single strategy from all members within a group or party cannot be trusted or verified. An example of this agreement problem is where a group of generals, encircled around a city, must decide whether to attack or retreat. Every general must agree to attack or retreat, or everyone will be worse off. Some generals may be treacherous, voting falsely, and messengers may deliver false votes. Under these circumstances, a consensus must be reached. In cryptocurrency, when network participants post false or inaccurate information to others about transactions taking place, it could lead to network failure. *see Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT).

Candlesticks
Candlesticks is a graphing technique used to show changes in price over time. Each candle provides 4 points of information

CAP
Shorthand for market capitalization (see definition below)

Cash
Cash is physical form of a currency, such as banknotes or coins.

Central Ledger
A ledger maintained by a central agency.
When a single entity has control of all financial records, it is considered to be a central ledger. This is how banks operate.
A ledger maintained by a centralized agency (such as a bank) that records all financial transactions

Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Central Processing Unit, also known as a processor or CPU, is defined as the brains” of the computer, coordinating different components running on a computer. CPU clock speed is measured in gigahertz or GHz for short.

Centralized
An organization structure in which a small number of nodes is in control of an entire network.

Centralized ledger
Not all blockchain ledgers are decentralized and distributed. Some ledgers, like the blockchain that is associated with the Ripple altcoin, are controlled by a single entity that has ultimate authority over its contents.

Chain Linking
Each cryptocurrency has its own blockchain – the digital ledger that stores all transaction records. Chain linking is the process that occurs if you transfer one cryptocurrency to another. This requires the transaction to be lodged in two separate blockchains, so they must link together to achieve the goal.

Chain Split
Another term used to describe Fork.

Change
Bitcoin transactions are made up of inputs and outputs, in a system called Unspent Transaction Output. When you send bitcoins, you can only send them in a whole output, and the rest are sent back as change.

Chargeback
A demand made by a credit-card provider for a retailer to make good on the loss on a fraudulent or disputed transaction, reversing said payment or money transfer after it was authorized.
Intraditional payment systems (like credit cards), a customer can reverse a transaction and force the merchant to return funds. This is prevented with cryptocurrencies.

Cipher
The name given to the algorithm that encrypts and decrypts information.

Circulating Supply
The total number of coins in a cryptocurrency that are in the publicly tradable space is considered the circulating supply. Some coins can be locked, reserved or burned, therefore unavailable to public trading.

Client
Software that can access blockchain on a local computer and also help process blockchain transactions. Often includes a cryptocurrency software wallet.

Close
Refers to the closing price; similar to the same term used in financial stocks.

Cloud Mining
Mining with remote processing power rented from companies operating outfits in countries like Iceland, where the electricity is abundant and cost-efficient, and the ambient temperature is cold year-round. Another term for this is mining contract.

Coin
A coin is a cryptocurrency that can operate independently.

Coinbase
First designed in the Bitcoin system, a coinbase is a compulsorily-included transaction on a block, the output of which directs where to send the mining reward to. In the Bitcoin system, the coinbase has a 100 byte size input, where messages can be attached or used as an extra nonce.

cold storage
The process of moving crypto-currency ‘offline’, as a way of safekeeping your crypto-currency from hacking. There are a variety of ways to do this, but some methods most commonly used:
—Printing out the QR code of a software wallet and storing it somewhere safe, such as a safety deposit box.
—Moving the files of a software wallet onto a USB drive and storing it somewhere safe.
—Using a hardware wallet.
A kind of storage where you keep Bitcoin private keys offline.
Offline storage of cryptocurrencies, typically involving hardware non-custodial wallets, USBs, offline computers, or paper wallets. *see Hot Storage.

Cold Wallet
A cryptocurrency wallet that is in cold storage, i.e. not connected to the internet.

Confirmation
A transaction is only confirmed when it is included in a block on the blockchain, at which point it has one confirmation. Each additional block is another confirmation. Different exchanges require a different number of confirmations to consider a cryptocurrency transaction final.
When a Bitcoin transaction takes place, the blockchain confirms the transaction’s validity. The confirmation is done by miners” every 10 minutes when a block is mined. It is always advised that you wait for at least 6 confirmations to avoid double spending.
The successful act of hashing a transaction and adding it to the blockchain.
Each past block makes a transaction more irreversible because it stores them more deeply in the blockchain. Each time that happens it is called a confirmation.

Consensus
When a transaction is made, all nodes on the network verify that it is valid on the blockchain, and if so, they have a consensus.
Consensus is achieved when all participants of the network agree on the validity of the transactions, ensuring that the ledgers are exact copies of each other.
Blocks can’t be added to a blockchain without a majority of users reaching a consensus as to their validity.
An automated mechanism that allows blockchain participants to agree on which transactions happened and in which order. This agreement is known as a trustless consensus.

Consensus Point
A point in time when blockchain participants agree on which transactions happened and in which order. Can be based on a time interval or based on a volume of transactions.

Consensus Process
Refers to those nodes that are responsible for maintaining the blockchain ledger so that a consensus can be reached when a transaction is made.

Consortium Blockchain
A privately-owned and -operated blockchain in which a consortium shares information not readily available to the public, while relying on the immutable and transparent properties of the blockchain.

Correction
A correction is a (usually negative) reverse movement of at least 10% in a cryptocurrency or general market, to adjust for over- or under-valuations.

Co-Signer
A person or entity that has partial control and access over a cryptocurrency wallet.

Cryptocurrency
Also known as tokens, cryptocurrencies are representations of digital assets.
A form of money that exists as encrypted, digital information. Operating independently of any banks, a cryptocurrency uses sophisticated mathematics to regulate the creation and transfer of funds between entities.
A cryptocurrency is a digital medium of exchange using strong cryptography to secure financial transactions, control the creation of additional units, and verify the transfer of assets.
A digital currency that uses strong computer code (cryptography) and a decentralized system to allow for transactions without using middlemen like banks. AKA digital currency.

Cryptographic hash
Hashes are the cryptography part of cryptocurrency, and are what makes a blockchain secure, verifiable, and unhackable. Cryptographic hashes can take inputs of variable length, but always output a fixed-length string of numbers and letters. Most cryptocurrencies use SHA-265, which always outputs a 256-bit string regardless of whether the input is hello or an entire sentence.

Cryptographic Hash Function
Cryptographic hashes produce a fixed-size and unique hash value from variable-size transaction input. The SHA-256 algorithm is an example of a cryptographic hash function.
This process happens on a node and involves converting an input – such as a transaction – into a fixed, encrypted alphanumeric string that registers its place in the blockchain. This conversion is controlled by a hashing algorithm, which is different for each cryptocurrency.

Cryptography
A field of study and practice to secure information, preventing third parties from reading information to which they are not privy.
A branch of mathematics and computer science that is behind the invention of cryptocurrencies.
The process of encrypting and decrypting information.

Crypto-jacking
The use of another party’s computer to mine cryptocurrency without their consent.

Cryptomining malware
As cryptocurrency has gained value, malware creators have quickly stepped up their efforts to build malware that uses infected CPUs to mine cryptocurrency—then, the coder adds it to their personal wallet. Different forms of cryptomining malware exists—some of the malware installs apps on mobile devices and computers, and some malware operate as scripts that run from the web.

Custodial
Usually referring to the storage of keys, in relation to wallets or exchanges, a custodial set-up is one in which private keys are being held by the service provider while they provide a login account. *see Non-custodial.

Cypherpunk
An activist who advocates for the mass adoption and use of strong cryptographic solutions and privacy-enhancing technologies to enact social and political progress.

DAICO
A method for decentralized funding of projects. It combines ideas from Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs) and Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs). Project investors have the ability to vote and, if dissatisfied with the project’s progress, could get their money back. Proposed by Vitalik Buterin, the creator of Ethereum.

DAO
Decentralized Autonomous Organization. An investor-directed venture capital fund built on the Ethereum network that was hacked in June 2016. The hack stole about a third of the DAO’s funds and led to Ethereum being hard-forked the following month. The DAO is often cited as one of Ethereum’s biggest stumbles thus far.

Decentralised Autonomous Organizations can be thought of as corporations that run without any human intervention and surrender all forms of control to an incorruptible set of business rules.

dApp
Shorthand for decentralized application”

Dapp
A decentralised application (Dapp) is an application that is open source, operates autonomously, has its data stored on a blockchain, incentivised in the form of cryptographic tokens and operates on a protocol that shows proof of value.
Decentralized Application. This refers to an application that uses an Ethereum smart contract as it’s back-end code.

Dark Web
A portion of internet content existing on darknets, not indexed by search engines, that can only be accessed with specific software, configurations or authorizations.

Darknet
A peer-to-peer layer of the internet that can only be accessed with special software. It is known as Darknet because it often involves illegal marketplaces and illicit activity.

Date of Launch
Is a term used for when ICOs will put up their tokens for sale.

Dead Cat Bounce
A temporary recovery in prices after a huge decrease.

Decentralization
One of the key reasons cryptocurrency has been such a hit is because it has changed the way data like ledgers and applications are stored. Instead of relying on a central node like a server, blockchains, Bitcoins, decentralized applications, and all the data they contain are distributed between nodes. The greatest strength of decentralization is its resilience

Decentralized
Decentralization refers to the property of a system in which nodes or actors work in concert in a distributed fashion to achieve a global goal.

Decentralized Application
Applications that run without the control of a central authority (like a software company or government). Ethereum is the first and largest decentralized application platform.
A computer program that utilizes a blockchain for data storage, runs autonomously, is not controlled or operated from a single entity, is open source and has its use incentivized by the reward of fees or tokens.

Decentralized applications
Also known as dapps, decentralized applications take the concept of distributing blockchain ledgers and go a bit further

Decentralized Applications (dApps)
A type of application that runs on a decentralized network, avoiding a single point of failure.

Decentralized Autonomous Initial Coin Offerings (DAICO)
A method for decentralized funding of projects, combining ideas from Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs) and Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs), proposed by Vitalik Buterin, creator of Ethereum. It introduces a form of governance in the ICO process, allowing backers to vote for the return of their funds if certain conditions are met.

Decentralized Autonomous Organization
Refers to organizations that are run by an application (computer program) rather than direct human input. Control of this application is granted to everyone rather than a single central entity.

Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO)
An investor-funded and directed venture capital crowd-fund built on the Ethereum network that was hacked in June 2016 and subsequently shut down.

Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAO)
An organization that is run through rules encoded in smart contracts.

Decentralized Exchange
A peer-to-peer exchange that allows users to buy and sell cryptocurrency and other assets without the control or fees of a central authority. Unlike central services like CoinBase.

Decentralized Exchange (DEX)
A peer-to-peer exchange that allows users to buy and sell cryptocurrency and other assets without a central intermediary involved.

Decentralized Organization
A smart-contract based organization that uses automated rules to run without a central authority. Funding, voting, and more are all handled via platforms like Ethereum.

Decryption
The process of transforming data that has been rendered unreadable through encryption back to its unencrypted form.
Turning encrypted cipher text back into plain text.

Deflation
Reduction of the general level of prices in an economy. May also refer to deflationary monetary policy, such as Bitcoin, where there is a fixed supply of coins.
When the demand for a particular cryptocurrency decreases, bringing down the price of its economy.

Delegated Proof-of-Stake (dPOS)
A consensus mechanism where users can vote for delegates producing blocks on the blockchain, with votes proportional to their stake. It aims to increase efficiency and environmental friendliness of blockchain consensus protocols.

Depth Chart
A graph that plots the requests to buy (bids) and the requests to sell (asks) on a chart, based on limit orders. The chart shows the point at which the market is most likely to accept a transaction.
This graph plots the requests to buy (known as bids) and the requests to sell (known as asks) on a chart. Because you can put a limit order on your buy or sell transaction, the depth chart shows the crossover point at which the market is most likely to accept a transaction in a timely fashion. It also shows if there are any significant buy walls or sell walls in play.

Derivative
A contract deriving its value from the performance of an underlying asset, index, or interest rate.

Derivatives Market
A public market for derivatives, instruments such as futures contracts or options, which are derived from other forms of cryptocurrency assets.

Deterministic Wallet
A type of wallet that derives keys from a starting point called a seed. As long as you have this seed, you are able to backup and restore any wallet. *see Hierarchical Deterministic Wallet (HD Wallet).
This type of wallet is created by producing multiple keys from a seed. If you lose this wallet, your wallet key can be recovered from the seed. Plus, when you make transactions, instead of producing new keys each time, you use variations from the seed, which makes it more transferable and easier to store.

Difficulty
Difficulty is a measure of how hard it is to successfully mine a single block in a blockchain. Cryptocurrency miners are attempting to find cryptographic hashes for specific blocks of data, which becomes more difficult the longer a blockchain becomes. Difficulty continues to rise, making mining a more intensive process as time goes on.
When someone refers to difficulty in the cryptocurrency space, they are referring to the cost of mining in that moment in time. The more transactions that are trying to be confirmed at any single moment in time, divided by the total power of the nodes on the network at that time, defines the difficulty. The higher the difficulty, the greater the transaction fee – this is a fluid measurement that moves over time.
A relative measure of how difficult it is to discover a new block. In Bitcoin, the difficulty is adjusted periodically as a function of how much hashing power has been deployed by the network of miners.

Difficulty
A measurement of how difficult it is for a miner to solve the mathematical puzzle required to process a cryptocurrency block. The difficulty can change over time.

Digital Commodity
An intangible asset that is transferred electronically, and has a certain value.

Digital Currency
Another term for digital commodity
Digital currency, also known as digital money or electronic money or electronic currency, is a type of currency available only in digital form, allowing for instantaneous transactions and borderless transfer-of-ownership.
A digital currency that uses strong computer code (cryptography) and a decentralized system to allow for transactions without using middlemen like banks. AKA cryptocurrency.

Digital Identity
Digital representations and storage of personal information such as name, address, social security number, and more; on the blockchain, digital identity can be decentralized and used for identity verification in a secure manner.
Personal information like name, address, social security number, and more that are bundled and stored digitally. For blockchain digital identity can be stored decentralized.

Digital Signature
A digital code generated by public key encryption that is attached to an electronically transmitted document to verify its contents and the sender’s identity.
Used to confirm that a document being transmitted electronically is authentic. They generally appear as a code generated by a public key encryption.

Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)
A directed acyclic graph or DAG is a structure that is built out in one single direction and in such a way that it never repeats.

Distributed
A system that is not controlled and cannot be changed by a central authority like a person, company, or government. Most cryptocurrencies are decentralized systems.

Distributed Consensus
Collective agreement by various computers in a network enabling it to work in a decentralized manner without a central authority.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack
A cyber-attack in which the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable, disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet, by overloading the system with requests so that legitimate requests cannot be served.

Distributed Ledger
A ledger that is stored in multiple locations so that any entries can be accessed and checked by multiple parties. In cryptocurrency, this refers to the blockchain being held on multiple nodes on the network, all of which are checked simultaneously.

Distributed Ledger
A type of computer database that is stored on many private computers at the same time, instead of central company servers. Blockchains are also known as distributed ledgers.
Distribution involves decentralizing data between multiple nodes. A distributed ledger is a blockchain ledger that is redundantly shared between peers so there are multiple valid copies to prevent data loss. Centralized ledgers are the exact opposite
Distributed ledgers are ledgers in which data is stored across a network of decentralized nodes. A distributed ledger does not necessarily involve a cryptocurrency and may be permissioned and private.

Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)
The technology underlying distributed ledgers. This term is most often discussed in the context of enterprise use cases around adoption of distributed ledger technology.

Distributed Network
A type of network where processing power and data are spread over the nodes without a centralized data center or authority.
What a distributed ledger is to cryptocurrency a distributed network is to decentralized applications. As opposed to using a single source like a server to run a dapp, a distributed network (e.g., the Ethereum Virtual Machine) shares the processing work and stored data between its nodes.

Dolphin
A person who owns a moderate quantity of cryptocurrency. This person does not qualify to be a whale, but has evolved from being a fish/minnow.

Dominance
Also known as BTC Dominance for Bitcoin Dominance, it is an index that compares the market capitalization of Bitcoin with the overall market cap of all other cryptocurrencies in existence.

Double Spend
A problem in which somebody fraudulently sends digital money to two different receivers (even though they only have enough for one transaction). Bitcoin solves this issue.
This occurs when someone tries to send a cryptocurrency to two different wallets or locations at the same time.

Double Spending
A situation where a sum of money is (illegitimately) spent more than once.
Double spending occurs when a sum of money is spent more than once.

Dump
The term used to describe selling all (or a lot) of your cryptocurrency.
To sell off all your coins.

Dumping
The action of collective market sell-offs, creating downward price movement.
When a lot of people dump at once, causing a sharp downward movement in a cryptocurrency’s price.

Dust Transactions
Minuscule transactions that flood and slow the network, usually deliberately created by people looking to disrupt it.
Sometimes people will look to slow the network by deliberately flooding it with minor transactions that are incredibly small. These minuscule amounts are referred to as a dust transaction.

DYOR
Acronym for do your own research”.
Age old adage

EEA
Enterprise Ethereum Alliance. A coalition of startups and corporations trying to figure out the best way to use this dang thing.

ELI5
Stands for Explain Like I’m 5”, an explanation so simple that even a five-year-old can understand it.

Emission
Emission, also known as Emission Curve, Emission Rate, and Emission Schedule, is the speed at which new coins are created and released.

Encryption
Converting plain text into unintelligible text with the use of a cipher.
The use of mathematics and computer code (cryptography) to protect sensitive data like digital wallets, private keys, and personal information from unauthorized access.

Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA)
A group of Ethereum core developers, startups, and large companies working together to commercialize and use Ethereum for different business applications.

Equity Tokens
A token that represents an ownership interest in a company. Equity tokens work similar to traditional stocks and may include voting rights. Equity tokens are also used to represent ownership rights in company debt. They are designed to improve transparency and liquidity (the ability to buy and sell the equity when investors need it).

ERC
Stands for Ethereum request for comments” and is a summation of proposed improvements to the Ethereum system.

ERC-20
The standard to which each Ethereum token complies. It defines the way that each token behaves so that transactions are predictable. Other cryptocurrencies also use the ERC-20 standard, piggybacking on the Ethereum network in the process.
A token standard for Ethereum, used for smart contracts implementing tokens. It is a common list of rules defining interactions between tokens, including transfer between addresses and data access.

ERC-721
A token standard for non-fungible Ethereum tokens. An Ethereum Improvement Proposal introduced in 2017, it enables smart contracts to operate as tradeable tokens similar to ERC-20 tokens.

Escrow
An escrow is a contractual arrangement in which a third party receives and disburses money or documents for the primary transacting parties, with the disbursement dependent on conditions agreed to by the transacting parties. This is possible to be automated using smart contracts on the blockchain.
When an intermediary is used to hold funds during a transaction, those funds are being held in escrow. This is usually a third party between the entity sending and the one receiving.

ETH
ETH is the short ticker symbol for Ethereum, which is often used on exchanges and other financial platforms. Ethereum is a platform for creating and running smart contracts.

Ether
The digital currency of the Ethereum network. Ether is used to pay the transaction and processing fees of Ethereum decentralized applications and smart contracts.
Often mistakenly called Ethereum, Ether is the cryptocurrency that powers the EVM, commonly called Ethereum. Ethereum is used to reward blockchain mining and dapp nodes for participating in the work of the EVM.
The form of payment used in the operation of the distribution application platform, Ethereum, in order to incentivize machines into executing the requested operations.

Ethereum
A platform for creating and running smart contracts. These are programmable applications that run exactly as promised – without downtime, censorship, or interference.
Ethereum is a decentralized computer network, also known as the Ethereum Virtual Machine (or EVM), that operates dapps and is fueled by the cryptocurrency Ether.
One of the top three cryptocurrencies in the world based on its market capitalization. Despite being open source and based on blockchain technology, it differs from bitcoin in two key ways: it allows developers to create dApps and also write smart contracts.

Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP)
Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIPs) describe standards for the Ethereum platform, including core protocol specifications, client APIs, and contract standards.

Ethereum Virtual Machine
A virtual machine, effectively sitting in the cloud, that is Turing complete and is used by all nodes on the network during blockchain confirmations. It allows those on the node to execute random EVM Byte Code, which is part of the Ethereum Protocol.

Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)
A Turing-complete virtual machine that enables execution of code exactly as intended; it is the runtime environment for every smart contract. Every Ethereum node runs on the EVM to maintain consensus across the blockchain.

EVM
The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is a Turing complete virtual machine that allows anyone to execute arbitrary EVM Byte Code. Every Ethereum node runs on the EVM to maintain consensus across the blockchain.

Exchange
A system on which assets like cryptocurrencies can be bought, sold, and stored. Exchanges can be centralized where a company controls them; or decentralized (peer-to-peer).
The platform through which cryptocurrencies are exchanged with each other, with fiat currencies and between entities. Exchanges can vary widely in the currency conversions they enable and their fee structures.
Cryptocurrency exchanges (sometimes called digital currency exchanges) are businesses that allow customers to trade cryptocurrencies for fiat money or other cryptocurrencies.

Exchange Traded Fund (ETF)
A security that tracks a basket of assets such as stocks, bonds, and cryptocurrencies but can be traded like a single stock. Bought and sold on traditional stock exchanges.

FA
Acronym for fundamental analysis”.

Faucet
A cryptocurrency reward system usually on a website or app, that rewards users for completing certain tasks. It is mostly a technique used when first launching an altcoin to interest people in the coin.
If you find a website that offers to give you free cryptocurrency for connecting with them, it is termed a faucet. The majority of these are scams.
A service or website that pay you in cryptocurrencies in exchange for playing games or doing certain tasks.

Fiat
Refers to money recognized as legal tender by governments, such as the US dollar, British pound, Euro and Australian dollar.
Fiat currency is legal tender” backed by a central government, such as the Federal Reserve, and with its own banking system, such as fractional reserve banking. It can take the form of physical cash, or it can be represented electronically, such as with bank credit.
A term used to describe traditional government-issued and backed currencies like dollars, Euros, and Yen. Not backed by physical commodities but by legal tender laws.

Fiat currency
Fiat currency (e.g., dollars, euros, pounds, yen) is the form of money that we use every day, and it derives value from the government that issued the currency. Cryptocurrency isn’t fiat currency because it isn’t given value by a central authority.

Fiat-Pegged Cryptocurrency
Also known as pegged cryptocurrency”, it is a coin, token, or asset issued on a blockchain that is linked to a government- or bank-issued currency. Each pegged cryptocurrency is guaranteed to have a specific cash value in reserves at all times.

Finney, Szabo

More somewhat common denominations of ether.

Fish
A fish, or minnow, is someone who holds insignificant amounts of cryptocurrencies, often at the mercy of whales who move the market up and down. *see Dolphin and Whale.

Flippening
A situation hoped for by Ethereum fans, where the total market cap of Ethereum surpasses the total market cap of Bitcoin.

Flippening
A potential future event, hoped for by Ethereum fans, where the total market cap of Ethereum surpasses the total market cap of Bitcoin – making Ethereum the most valuable.

Flipping
An investment strategy (mostly popularized by real estate investing) where you buy something with the goal of reselling for a profit later, usually in a short period of time. In the context of ICOs, flipping refers to the strategy of investing in tokens before they are listed on exchanges, then quickly reselling them for a profit when they start trading on exchanges in the secondary market.

FOMO
An acronym that stands for ‘fear of missing out’ and in the context of investing, refers to the feeling of apprehension for missing out on a potentially profitable investment opportunity and regretting it later. *see JOMO.
Fear Of Missing Out. The overwhelming sensation that you need to get on the train when the price of something starts to skyrocket.
Internet culture term that stands for Fear of Missing Out. Describes actions taken by investors based on emotions and the fear of not benefitting from a price rise or drop.
Fear of missing out. A feeling in which you want to get onboard a skyrocketing price rally.

Fork
A situation where a blockchain splits into two separate chains. Forks generally happen in the crypto-world when new ‘governance rules’ are built into the blockchain’s code.
Forks are points at which an existing blockchain splits into two or more different blockchains. Up to the point of forking, both blockchains contain the same data, but after that point are different. Forks can be both hard (i.e., not backwards compatible) and soft (i.e., backwards compatible), and can occur due to a change in consensus or a change in blockchain protocol (i.e., underlying code).
When a new version of a blockchain is created, resulting in two versions of the blockchain running side-by-side, it is termed a fork. As a single blockchain forks into two, they will both run on the same network. Forks are categorized into two categories: soft or hard.
Forks create an alternate version of the blockchain, leaving two blockchains to run simultaneously on different parts of the network.

Fork (Blockchain)
Forks, or chain splits, create an alternate version of the blockchain, leaving two blockchains to run simultaneously. An example is Ethereum and Ethereum Classic, which was forked after the DAO hack.

Fork (Software)
A software fork, also known as a project fork, is when developers take the technology (source code) from one existing software project and modify it to create a new project. An example is Litecoin, which was a software fork of Bitcoin.

Frictionless
If there is no transaction cost and no restraints on trading, then the system is considered frictionless.

Frontier, Homestead, Metropolis, Serenity

The four planned stages of the Ethereum development roadmap. We are currently in the Homestead phase. The Metropolis update is likely to be available sometime in the next year.

FUD
Acronym for fear, uncertainty and doubt”.
An acronym that stands for fear, uncertainty and doubt”. It is a strategy to influence perception of certain cryptocurrencies or the cryptocurrency market in general by spreading negative, misleading or false information. *see FUDster.
Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt. Baseless negativity spread intentionally by someone that wants the price of something to drop.
Internet culture term that stands for Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt. It means negative information that is being purposefully spread about an asset to make people sell.

FUDster
A person who spreads FUD based on facts or gut feelings.
Someone that is spreading FUD.

Full Node
Some nodes download a blockchain’s entire history in order to enforce its rules completely. As they fully enforce the rules, they are considered a full node.

Fundamental Analysis
A method through which you can attach value to a coin by looking at similar economic and financial factors and researching the underlying motives of the creators and market opinion.

Fundamental Analysis (FA)
A method in which you research the underlying value of an asset by looking at the technology, team, growth prospects and other indicators. Some people perform fundamental analysis as part of an investment strategy called value investing”.

Futures
Contracts to buy assets (like cryptocurrencies and stocks) with an agreement for future delivery on a regulated stock exchange. Used to speculate on the future price of an asset.
A futures contract is a standardized legal agreement to buy or sell a particular commodity or asset at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future. They are different from forward contracts, which can be customized for each trade and can be conducted over-the-counter, instead of being traded on an exchange.

Futures Contract
This is a pre-approved contract between two entities to fulfill a transaction when the value of cryptocurrency hits a certain price. It’s different than a limit order in that the buyer and seller are already nominated and bound. A future contract becomes relevant when a buyer wants to go short and a seller wants to go long on the asset.

Gains
Gains refer to an increase in value or profit.

Gas
A term used on the Ethereum platform that refers to a unit of measuring the computational effort of conducting transactions or smart contracts, or launch dApps in the Ethereum network. It is the fuel” of the Ethereum network. *see Gas Limit and Gas Price.
A measurement of how much processing is required by the ethereum network to process a transaction. Simple transactions, like sending ether to another address, typically do not require much gas. More complex transactions, like deploying a smart contract, require more gas.
Gas a is measurement given to an operation in the Ethereum network that relates to the computational power required to complete it. That measurement relates to the fee offered to miners who process that transaction. Other operations have a small cost of 3 to 10 gas, but a full transaction costs 21,000 gas.
To run decentralized applications and smart contracts on the Ethereum network, apps calculate their usage using an internal pricing unit called Gas. Actual fees are then paid in Ether.

Gas Limit
A term used on the Ethereum platform that refers to the maximum amount of gas the user is willing to spend on a transaction.
When users make a transaction on the Ethereum network, they set their gas limit, which is the most they are willing to pay as a fee for that transaction. If the transaction is going to cost more gas than what is offered, the transaction will not go through. If it costs less, the difference will be refunded.

Gas Price
A term used on the Ethereum platform that refers to the price you are willing to pay for a transaction. Setting a higher gas price will incentivize miners to prioritize that transaction over others.
The amount of ether to be spent for each gas unit on a transaction. The initiator of a transaction chooses and pays the gas price of the transaction. Transactions with higher gas prices are prioritized by the network.

Genesis Block
A blockchain is a string of blocks that are linked together in order. Each block is a collection of bundled transactions. The genesis block is the very first block of a blockchain.
The first block of data that is processed and validated to form a new blockchain, often referred to as block 0 or block 1.

Going long
A margin trade that profits if the price increases.

Going short
A margin trade that profits if the price decreases.

Gold-Backed Cryptocurrency
A coin or token issued that represents a value of gold; for example, one physical gram of gold equals to one coin. The gram of gold is stored in a safe and can be traded with other coin holders.

Graphical Processing Unit (GPU)
More commonly known as a graphics card, it is a computer chip that creates 3D images on computers, but has turned out to be efficient for mining cryptocurrencies.

Group Mining
Another term used to describe a Mining Pool.

Gwei
The denomination used in defining the cost of gas in transactions involving Ether.
Another denomination of ether. Gas prices are most often measured in Gwei. 1 Ether = 1000000000 Gwei. (109)

Hacking
Hacking is the process of using a computer to manipulate another computer or computer system in an unauthorized fashion.

Halving
An event in which the total rewarded bitcoins per confirmed block halves, happening every 210,000 blocks mined.
Every time miners approve transactions on the bitcoin blockchain, they earn bitcoin. As each block on the blockchain fills up with transactions, a certain amount of bitcoin enter the marketplace. However, the number of bitcoin that will ever be created is finite, locked at 21 million. In order to ensure this cap is kept, the amount of bitcoin earned by miners for filling one block is halved at the completion of that block. This is called halving. For the record, by the year 2140, all 21 million bitcoin will be in circulation.
It is the 50% reduction in block reward after a certain number of blocks are mined. In Bitcoin, the halving happens after every 210,000 blocks.
Bitcoin’s supply of newly generated coins is cut in half about every four years to keep it scarce. This 50% cut if known as the halving. The next halving will happen around 2020.

Hard Cap
The maximum amount that an ICO will raise. If a hard cap is reached, no more funds will be collected. *see Soft Cap.
During an ICO, the creator can set a hard cap. This is the maximum amount it planned to raise, and it will therefore stop offering coins at this figure.

Hard Fork
A type of fork that renders previously invalid transactions valid, and vice versa. This type of fork requires all nodes and users to upgrade to the latest version of the protocol software.
A change to the rules of a cryptocurrency that creates two separate versions of the blockchain. Hard forks are changes that are not backward compatible with previous rules.
A fork in the blockchain that converts transactions previously labeled invalid to valid, and vice versa. For this fork to work, all nodes on the network must upgrade to the newest protocol.

Hard Fork (Blockchain)
A type of protocol change that validates all previously invalid transactions, and invalidates all previously valid transactions. This type of fork requires all nodes and users to upgrade to the latest version of the forked protocol software. In a hard fork, a single cryptocurrency permanently splits into two, resulting in one blockchain that follows the old protocol and the other that follows the newest protocol. Some examples are Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash, or Ethereum and Ethereum Classic. *see Soft Fork.

Hardware Wallet
A physical device, similar to a USB stick, that stores cryptocurrency in its encrypted form. It’s considered the most secure way to hold cryptocurrency.

Hardware Wallet
A physical storage device fo cryptocurrencies that uses special technologies to protect the assets on it. Examples of hardware wallets are the products Ledger Nano S and Trezor.
A device that can securely store crypto-currency. Hardware wallets are often regarded as the most secure way to hold crypto-currency.

Hash
The act of performing a hash function on input data of arbitrary size, with an output of fixed length that looks random and from which no data can be recovered without a cipher. An important property of a hash is that the output of hashing a particular document will always be the same when using the same algorithm.
A digital fingerprint of a fixed size produced by a hashing algorithm by processing data of any arbitrary size (numbers, alphabets, media files).

Hash Function
Any function used to map data of arbitrary size to data of a fixed size. *see Cryptographic Hash Function.
Cryptographic computer code works like a one-way street. It’s easy to decipher 250 + 250 = ? but much harder to find the correct answer (out of many) for ? + ? = 500.

Hash Power / Hash Rate
A unit of measurement for the amount of computing power being consumed by the network to continuously operate. The Hash Rate of a computer may be measured in kH/s, MH/s, GH/s, TH/s, PH/s or EH/s depending on the hashes per second being produced.

Hash Rate
Hash Rate or Hash Power is the measuring unit of the power Bitcoin network is consuming to be continuously functional.
Measurement of performance that reveals how many hashes per second your computer is capable of producing. Each hash is an attempt to find a block by creating a unique block candidate and testing it against the network.

Hashing Power
The hash rate of a computer, measured in kH/s, MH/s, GH/s, TH/s, PH/s or EH/s depending on the hashes per second being produced. 1,000 kH/s = 1 MH/s, 1,000 MH/s = 1 GH/s and so forth.

HD Wallet
Wallets which generate the hierarchical tree-like structure of numerous public and private keys starting from the root seed key.

Hidden Cap
Hidden cap is an unknown limit to the amount of money a team elects to receive from investors in its Initial Coin Offering (ICO). The purpose of a hidden cap is to even the playing field by letting smaller investors put in money, without the large investors forming an accurate understanding of the total cap and adjusting their investment as a result.

Hierarchical Deterministic Wallet (HD Wallet)
A wallet that uses Hierarchical Deterministic (HD) protocol to support the generation of crypto-wallets from a single master seed using 12 mnemonic phrases. *see Deterministic Wallet.

HODL
Acronym for hold on for dear life”.
Long ago, someone on a bitcoin forum got drunk and made a post with this typo in the place of ‘hold’. A meme was born.
It is a meme term which is basically means hold or Hold on for dear life. It means to hold onto the cryptocurrency that you have invested and ignore the sentiments.
A type of passive investment strategy where you hold an investment for a long period of time, regardless of any changes in the price or markets. The term first became famous due to a typo made in a bitcoin forum, and the term is now commonly expanded to stand for Hold On for Dear Life”.

Hosted Wallet
Is a wallet managed by a third-party service.

Hot Storage
The online safekeeping of private keys which allow for access to cryptocurrency funds. Typically this is done through open-source online wallets and digital asset exchanges.

Hybrid PoW/PoS
A hybrid PoW/PoS allows for both Proof-of-Stake and Proof-of-Work as consensus distribution algorithms on the network. This approach aims to bring together the security of PoW consensus and the governance and energy efficiency of PoS.

Hyperledger (Hyperledger Foundation)
Hyperledger is an umbrella project of open source blockchains and blockchain-related tools started by the Linux Foundation in 2015 to support the collaborative development of blockchain-based distributed ledgers.

ICO
Initial Coin Offering of new crypto coins or tokens offered to the general public in return for their fixed priced investments. It is a new way of decentralized crowdfunding.
When a new cryptocurrency venture begins it can make an initial coin offering (ICO), similar to an initial public offering (IPO). Instead of company shares being sold to early investors, ICOs involve the sale of cryptocurrencies to early backers of the project. Companies offering ICOs have to surpass a minimum earning threshold before the ICO or all money is returned to backers and the project fails.

Immutable
A property that defines the inability to be changed, especially over time.

Inflation
A general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value of money.

Initial Bounty Offering (IBO)
An Initial Bounty Offering or IBO is the limited-time process by which a new cryptocurrency is made public and distributed to people who invest time and skill into earn rewards in the new cryptocurrency, such as doing translation or marketing. Unlike an Initial Coin Offering where you can buy coins, an IBO requires more mental commitment from the receiver.

Initial Coin Offering (ICO)
A type of crowdfunding, or crowdsale, using cryptocurrencies as a means of raising capital for early-stage companies. It has come under fire due to the occurrence of scams and market manipulators.
In order to raise funds, the creator of a cryptocurrency will put an initial batch of its coins up for purchase. This is an initial coin offering.
A public, crowdfunded sale of cryptocurrency tokens to raise money for a project. Typically, company-specific tokens are offered in exchange for Bitcoin and Ethereum.

Initial Token Offering (ITO)
Similar to ICOs, but the focus is on the offering of tokens with proven (or unproven) intrinsic utility in the form of software or usage in an ecosystem.

Instamine
A period in time, shortly after launch, when a large portion of total mineable coins or tokens are mined in a compressed time frame, and may be unevenly and quickly distributed to investors.

Intermediary
For cryptocurrencies, an intermediary is a traditional middleman like a bank. It’s a central third party that no longer is required in a decentralized Blockchain system.

Intermediary / Middleman
An intermediary, or middleman, is a person or entity that acts as the go-between different parties to bring about agreements or carry out directives.

JOMO
Acronym for joy of missing out”.
The opposite state of FOMO, JOMO stands for Joy of Missing Out”. Most often used by no-coiners who declare their happiness that they are not involved in cryptocurrencies, usually when prices are declining or a scam ICO is revealed.

Know Your Customer (KYC)
Laws and regulations that require banks and other financial institutions to keep and report many details of their customers’ personal information and transactions.

KYC
Acronym for Know Your Customer”, this process refers to a project’s or financial institution’s obligations to verify the identity of a customer in line with global anti-money laundering laws.

LAMBO
Shorthand for Lamborghini, which is how someone might refer to themselves if they are getting rich quickly. The idea being there is so much money coming in that they are going to go buy an exotic car.

Ledger
A record of financial transactions. A ledger cannot be changed, it can only be appended with new transactions.
A ledger is usually a record of a specific type of transaction such as money, purchases, etc. Ledgers in the cryptocurrency world are also known as blockchains, which contain complete records of the history of a cryptocurrency’s use. In this case, the ledgers are not physical objects—ledgers are digital lists of cryptographically hashed data validated through group consensus.
A store of records that can only be appended (added to). It is immutable (unchangeable after the fact). Blockchains use decentralized ledgers as their core technology.

Ledger Nano S
A popular hardware wallet, designed and sold by the French company Ledger Wallet. The company offers different products, including Ledger Nano S and Ledger Blue.

Ledger Nano S / Trezor
Two of the most popular hardware wallet models.

Leverage
A loan offered by a broker on an exchange during margin trading to increase the availability of funds in trades.

Lightning Network
A peer-to-peer system for cryptocurrency micropayments that is focused on low latency, instant payments. They’re typically low cost, scalable and can work across chains, and transactions can be public or private.
The Lightning Network is a second layer payment protocol that operates on top of a blockchain. Theoretically, it will enable fast, scalable transactions between and across participating nodes, and has been touted as a solution to the Bitcoin scalability problem.
A proposed change to Bitcoin’s blockchain that’s designed to fascilitate faster transactions and better scaling. Involves bi-directional payment channels and other changes.

Limit Order (Limit Buy/Limit Sell)
Buy/Sell orders placed by traders to buy or sell a crypto-currency when the price meets their target amount.

Limit Order/Limit Buy/Limit Sell
If you set a rule whereby a cryptocurrency is sold or bought when at a certain price, you are setting a limit order. When traders place an order for a buy or sell, the system looks for these limit orders.
Orders placed by traders to buy or sell a crypto-currency when the price meets a certain amount. They can be thought of as ‘for-sale’ signs. These orders are what are bought and sold against when traders place market orders.

Liquidity
The liquidity of a cryptocurrency is defined by how easily it can be bought and sold without impacting the overall market price.

Litecoin
Litecoin is an altcoin that is a fork of Bitcoin, and it was launched in 2011. Litecoin is nearly identical to Bitcoin, but it differs in several key ways
An offshoot of Bitcoin with very similar features. However, this cryptocurrency is designed for very cheap and fast transaction. Has the goal to become digital money.

Locktime
If a transaction request comes with a rule delaying when it can be processed to a certain time or certain block on the blockchain, that is referred to as the locktime.

Long
A situation where you buy a cryptocurrency with the expectation of selling it at a higher price for profit later.
When you intend to take a large amount of cryptocurrency and stockpile it with the anticipation that it will grow in value, you are going long (or taking a long position).

LTC
LTC is the short ticker symbol for Litecoin, which is often used on exchanges and other financial platforms. Litecoin is an offshoot of Bitcoin with a focus on cheap transactions.

MACD
Moving Average Convergence Divergence. A trend indicator that shows the relationship between two moving averages of prices.

Mainnet
An independent blockchain running its own network with its own technology and protocol. It is a live blockchain where its own cryptocurrencies or tokens are in use, as compared to a testnet or projects running on top of other popular networks such as Ethereum.

Margin Bear Position
The position you are taking if you are going short” on margin. * Margin Bull Position

Margin Bear Position
This is the position you are taking if you are going short”.

Margin Bull Position
This is the position you are taking if you are going long”.

Margin Call
When an investor’s account value falls below the margin maintenance amount. The broker will then demand that the investor deposit additional money or securities to meet the minimum required maintenance amount to continue trading.

Margin trading
The act of ‘magnifying’ the intensity of your trades by risking your existing coins. (NOTE: Very risky, only for experienced traders and only on certain exchanges even then)
This is some Refers to the trading practice where existing assets are used as collateral for short-term loans. The loans are then used in risky trades to magnify the gain or loss of the trade.text inside of a div block.
A practice where a trader uses borrowed funds from a broker to trade a cryptocurrency, which forms the collateral for the loan from the broker. It can be relatively risky for inexperienced traders who may receive a margin call if the market moves in the opposite direction of their trades.
A risky strategy used by experienced traders where they risk their existing coins to magnify the intensity of their trades. This allows them to buy more than they can afford using leverage provided by an exchange.

Market
An area or arena, online or offline, in which commercial dealings are conducted. Usually referred to as the crypto market”, which refers to the cumulative cryptocurrencies and projects operating within the industry.

Market Capitalization
The total value of an asset, calculated by multiplying the total number of outstanding shares (or coins) and the price per share (or coin). Represents total size and popularity.
This is defined as the total number of coins in supply multiplied by the price. Cap = supply x price.

Market Capitalization / Market Cap / MCAP
Total capitalization of a cryptocurrency’s price. It is one of the ways to rank the relative size of a cryptocurrency.

Market Order
As opposed to a limit order, a market order does not wait until a certain price to buy or sell; it trades wherever the price is at the time the transaction order is made.

Market Order / Market Buy / Market Sell
A purchase or sale of a cryptocurrency on an exchange at the current best available price. Market orders are filled as buyers and sellers are willing to trade. This is in contrast with limit orders at which a cryptocurrency is sold only at a specified price.
A simple purchase or sale on an exchange at the current price. Market buys purchase the cheapest ETH available on the order book, and market sells fill the most expensive buy order on the books.

Masternodes
Masternodes are a server maintained by its owner, somewhat like full nodes, but with additional functionalities such as anonymizing transactions, clearing transactions, and participating in governance and voting. It was initially popularized by Dash to reward owners of these servers for maintaining a service for the blockchain.

Max Supply
The best approximation of the maximum amount of coins that will ever exist in the lifetime of the cryptocurrency. *see Circulating Supply and Total Supply.

MCAP
Acronym for market capitalization”.

Merkle Tree
A tree structure in cryptography, in which every leaf node is labelled with the hash of a data block and every non-leaf node is labelled with the cryptographic hash of the labels of its child nodes. Hash trees allow efficient and secure verification of the contents of blockchains, as each change propagates upwards so verification can be done by simply looking at the top hash.

MEW
MyEtherWallet. A free site that can generate ethereum software wallets for you.

MicroBitcoin (uBTC)
One millionth of a bitcoin or 0.000001 of a bitcoin. Often confused as a fork of Bitcoin.

Microtransaction
A business model where very small payments can be made in exchange for digital goods and services. For example, paying a tiny fee for every page of an ebook you read.

Middleman
For cryptocurrencies, a middleman is a traditional intermediary like a bank. It’s a central third party that no longer is required in a decentralized Blockchain system.
Some cryptocurrencies have a system through which miners can be rewarded with newly-created cryptocurrencies for creating blocks through contributing their hash power. Cryptocurrencies with this ability to generate new cryptocurrencies through the process of confirmation is said to be mineable.

Miner
An important participant in the blockchain network, who bundles transactions and gets paid in new coins and transaction fees in return for helping to run the system.

Miners
Contributors to a blockchain taking part in the process of mining. They can be professional miners or organizations with large-scale operations, or hobbyists who set up mining rigs at home or in the office.

Mining
The term, somewhat confusingly, given to the process of verifying transactions on a blockchain. In the process of solving the encryption challenges, the person donating the computer power is granted new fractions of the cryptocurrency.
The process of trying to ‘solve’ the next block. It requires obscene amounts of computer processing power to do effectively, but is rewarded with ether.
Mining is the act of validating blockchain transactions. The necessity of validation warrants an incentive for the miners, usually in the form of coins. In this cryptocurrency boom, mining can be a lucrative business when done properly. By choosing the most efficient and suitable hardware and mining target, mining can produce a stable form of passive income.

Mining Contract
Another term for cloud mining, where users can rent or invest in mining capacity online.
An investment in mining hardware whereby you rent out the hashing power of mining hardware for a certain amount of time. The renter does not pay for the hardware or the maintenance and electricity required to run it.

Mining Pool
A group of people or organizations who come together to pool and share their computer resources for cryptocurrency mining. They then also split the rewards.
If a number of miners combine their computing power together to try and help complete the transactions required to start a new block in the blockchain, they are in a mining pool. The rewards are spread proportionately between those in the mining pool based on the amount of power they contributed. The idea is that being in a mining pool allows for better chances of successful hashing and therefore getting enough cryptocurrency reward to produce an income.
A setup where multiple miners combine their computing power to gain economies of scale and competitiveness in finding the next block on a blockchain. Rewards are split according to different agreements, depending on the mining pool. Another term for this is Group Mining.

Mining Reward
The reward resulting from contributing computing resources to process transactions. Mining rewards are usually a mix of newly-minted coins and transaction fees.
The payment resulting from volunteering computer resources to process cryptocurrency transactions. Mining rewards are often a mix of new coins and transaction fees.

Mining Rig
A computer being used for mining. A mining rig could be a dedicated piece of hardware for mining, or a computer with spare capacity that can be used for other tasks, only mining part time.
A computer especially designed for processing proof-of-work blockchains, like Ethereum. They often consist of multiple high-end graphic processors (GPUs) to maximize their processing power.

Minnow
Another term used to describe Fish.

Mixing Service
Also known as Tumbler, it is a service to improve the privacy and anonymity of cryptocurrency transactions by mixing potentially identifiable or tainted” cryptocurrencies with other unrelated transactions, making it harder to track what the cryptocurrency was used for and who it belongs to.

Mnemonic Phrase
A mnemonic phrase (also known as mnemonic seed, or seed phrase) is a list of words used in sequence to access or restore your cryptocurrency assets. It should be kept secret from everyone else. It is a standard in most HD wallets.

Mnemonics
Mnemonics are memory aids with a system such as letters or associations that help in recall. *see Mnemonic Phrase.

Monero
Monero is another altcoin, and was specifically designed for anonymity. Monero transactions can’t be traced, which has made it a popular cryptocurrency among cybercriminals and crypto mining malware coders.
A secure, private, and untraceable cryptocurrency. Monero is focused on being anonymous internet money, hiding your accounts and transactions from anybody but you.

Money Services Business
A legal term used to represent an entity that transfers or converts money.

Money Transmitter/Money Transfer License
In the legal code of the United States, a money transmitter or money transfer service is a business entity that provides money transfer services or payment instruments, whether it is real currency, cryptocurrency, or any other value. Money Transmitters in the US are part of a larger group of entities called money service businesses or MSBs.

Moon
A term used to describe a major price movement upwards. For example, Ripple is mooning.
A situation where there is a continuous upward movement in the price of a cryptocurrency. Often used in communities to question when a cryptocurrency will experience such a phenomenon, saying

Moon / Mooning
Refers to a cryptocurrencies price shooting up to astronomical levels. A popular internet slang term used to describes the positive past or future performance of an asset.

Mooning
In the crypto-world, this does not mean exposing your buttocks. It is referring to a price going up astronomical levels.

Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD)
A technical analysis method, it is a trend-following momentum indicator that shows the relationship between two price moving averages. The calculation is done by subtracting the 26-day exponential moving average (EMA) from the 12-day EMA.
A part of the technical analysis of a cryptocurrency’s value, this tracks the momentum of price change to try and forecast into the future.

MSB
Acronym for money services business”.

Mt. Gox
Mtgox or Mt. Gox was one of the first websites where users could take part in fiat-to-bitcoin exchange (and vice versa). In 2014, Mt. Gox was shut down after about 850,000 bitcoin was declared lost or stolen. Mt. Gox was created in 2006 by Jed McCaleb who named it after Magic

Multi Signature (MultiSig)
Some cryptocurrency wallets and addresses are protected by multiple keys. Several people are required to approve (sign) transactions before they can take place.

Multipool Mining
If a miner moves from one cryptocurrency blockchain to another depending on the profitability provided by the network at that moment in time, they are engaging in multipool mining.

Multi-Signature
Multi-signature addresses provide an added layer of security by requiring more than one key to authorize a transaction.

Multi-Signature (Multi-Sig) Wallets
If, in order for a transaction to go through, more than one user needs to provide their unique code, then it is multi-signature. This system is set up at the creation of the account and is considered less susceptible to theft.

Network
A network refers to all the nodes committed to helping the operation of a blockchain at any given moment in time.

No-coiner
A no-coiner is someone who has no cryptocurrency in his or her investment portfolio and firmly believes that cryptocurrency in general will fail.

Node
A participant in a cryptocurrency network that provides a copy of the entire blockchain to the network. All miners host a node, but not all nodes have to mine cryptocurrency.

Nonce
When a miner hashes a transaction, a random number is generated, called a nonce. The parameters from which that number is chosen change based on the difficulty of the transaction.

Non-custodial
Usually referring to the storage of keys, in relation to wallets or exchanges, a non-custodial setup is one in which private keys are held by the user directly. *see Custodial.

Not Mineable
Some cryptocurrencies are generated only through other mechanisms, such as annual inflation through staking. These cryptocurrencies are said to be not mineable.

OCO
Acronym for one cancels the other order”.

Off-Ledger Currency
A digital currency that is created (minted) outside of the blockchain ledger but used on the blockchain ledger. Example

Offline Storage
The act of storing cryptocurrencies in devices or systems not connected to the internet. *see Online Storage.
Cryptocurrency wallets can be stored on devices and systems that are connected to the internet or not. Offline storage is the latter case, providing additional protection from hacking.

One Cancels the Other Order
When two orders for cryptocurrency are placed simultaneously with a rule in place whereby if one is accepted, the other is cancelled.

One Cancels The Other Order (OCO)
A situation where two orders for cryptocurrency are placed simultaneously, with a rule in place to enforce that if one is accepted, the other is cancelled.

On-Ledger Currency
A digital currency that is both created (minted) on the blockchain ledger and also used on the blockchain ledger. Most cryptocurrencies (like Bitcoin) are on-ledger currencies.

Online Storage
The act of storing cryptocurrencies in devices or systems connected to the internet. Online storage offers more convenience but also increased risk of theft. *see Offline Storage.
Cryptocurrency wallets can be stored on devices and systems that are connected to the internet or not. Online storage is the former case, offers more convenience but also increased risk.

Open Source
Collaborative and open software development approach that encourages experimentation and sharing. Project computer code is offered to others to work with and modify.
Open-source software is a type of software released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose. It is also a philosophy, with participants believing in the free and open sharing of information in pursuit of the greater common good.

Open/Close
The price at which a cryptocurrency opens at a time period, for example at the start of the day; the price at which a cryptocurrency closes at a time period, for example at the end of the day. In general, these terms were more useful in traditional financial markets as there are fixed hours of the day in which trading occurs.

Option
A contract giving the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset or instrument at a specified strike price. There are American and European options, the former of which may be exercised at any time before expiration, and the latter exercised only at the expiration date.

Options Market
A public market for options, giving the buyer an option to buy or sell a cryptocurrency at a specific strike price, on or before a specific date.

Oracles
The smart contracts stored on a blockchain are stuck within the network. They can only be reached by the external world through a program called an oracle. The oracle sends the data to and from the smart contract and the outside world as required. Oracles are most commonly found on the Ethereum network.
Oracles work as a bridge between the real world and the blockchain by providing data to the smart contracts.
For blockchain, an oracle is an automated system that decides based on pre-set rules and real-world events. It’s an essential function that helps to arbitrate smart contracts.
An agent that finds and verifies information, bridging the real world and the blockchain by providing data to smart contracts for execution of said contracts under specified conditions.

Orphan
A valid block on the blockchain that is not part of the main chain. They may come into existence when two miners produce blocks at similar times, or caused by an attacker attempting to reverse transactions. This is sometimes also known as a detached block”.

Over The Counter (OTC)
Over The Counter is defined as a transaction made outside of an exchange, often peer-to-peer through private trades. In jurisdictions where exchanges are disallowed or where amounts traded will move the markets, traders will go through the OTC route.

Overbought
If a large number of purchases have been made on a cryptocurrency, its price will increase for an extended period of time. At this juncture, it is considered overbought and a period of selling is expected.

Overbought
When a cryptocurrency has been purchased by more and more investors over time, with its price increasing for an extended period of time. When this happens without any justifiable reason, the cryptocurrency is considered overbought, and a period of selling is expected.

Oversold
When a cryptocurrency has been sold by more and more investors over time, with its price decreasing for an extended period of time. When this happens without any justifiable reason, the cryptocurrency is considered oversold, and a period of buying is expected.
If a cryptocurrency has spent significant time being sold without an upward movement, it is considered oversold. In this condition, there would be concerns about whether it will bounce back.

P2P
It means peer to peer or person to person.

Pair
Trade between one cryptocurrency and another, for example, the trading pair

Paper Wallet
A type of cold storage where private and public keys (and often a QR code) are printed or written on physical paper to prevent hacking and theft.
Storing your wallet code (your private key) on a physical document makes it a paper wallet. It’s also sometimes referred to as cold storage.

Peer to Peer
Peer to Peer (P2P) refers to the decentralized interactions between two parties or more in a highly-interconnected network. Participants of a P2P network deal directly with each other through a single mediation point.
In a peer-to-peer connection, two or more computers network with each other without a centralized third party being used as an intermediary.

Peer to Peer (P2P)
The decentralized interactions between parties in a distributed network, partitioning tasks or workloads between peers.
A peer-to-peer network that distributes computing tasks among many, private computers (decentralized), instead of using company computers (centralized).

Permissioned Ledger
A ledger designed with restrictions, such that only people or organizations requiring access have permission to access it.

Platform
On CoinMarketCap, platform refers to the parent blockchain of tokens. It may also refer to a cryptocurrency exchange on which you may trade cryptocurrencies.

PND
Acronym for pump and dump”.

Ponzi Scheme
A fraudulent investment involving the payment of purported returns to existing investors from funds contributed by new investors.

Portfolio
A collection of cryptocurrencies or crypto assets held by an investment company, hedge fund, financial institution or individual.

PoS
Proof-of-stake (not piece of shit). The proposed future consensus algorithm to be used by Ethereum. Instead of mining in its current form, people that own ETH will be able to ‘lock up’ their ether for a short amount of time in order to ‘vote’ and generate network consensus. The plan is that these stakeholders will be rewarded with ETH by doing so.

PoW
Proof-of-work. The current consensus algorithm used by Ethereum.

Pre-mine
When some or all of a coin’s initial supply is generated during or before the public launch, rather than being generated over time through mining or inflation. They may be used for legitimate purposes, such as crowdfunding or marketing.

Pre-Sale
A period before an ICO goes public when private investors or community members are able to buy the cryptocurrency.

Private Key
A string of numbers and letters that are used to access your wallet. While your wallet is represented by a public key, the private key is the password you should protect (with your life). You need your private key when selling or withdrawing cryptocurrencies, as it acts as your digital signature.
A private key is a secret, alphanumeric password/number used to spend/send your bitcoins to another Bitcoin address.
A string of letters and numbers that are used for sending cryptocurrency. The private key should be kept secret because it enables spending with the cryptocurrency wallet.

Private Key / Secret Key
A piece of code generated in asymmetric-key encryption process, paired with a public key, to be used in decrypting information hashed with the public key.

Private/public keys
Keys are used in all cryptocurrency transactions and come in two forms

Proof of Authority (PoA)
A private key that gives the holder the right to create the blocks in a private blockchain. It can be held by a single entity or a set number of entities. This is an alternative to the proof-of-work model, as instead of getting multiple random nodes to approve a transaction, a group of specific nodes are given the authority to approve. This is a far faster method.

Proof of stake
Proof of stake (PoS) is a consensus algorithm that rewards cryptocurrency miners based on the amount of cryptocurrency they hold. The more cryptocurrency a miner owns, the larger the share of the payout for each solved block they receive. There is no actual block reward in a PoS, with miners directly earning transaction fee currency instead. PoS is the newer of the two consensus algorithms, and it is slated to begin being used for Etherium mining sometime in 2018. Supporters of PoS argue that it’s more cost effective than proof of work mining.
Another alternative to proof of work, this caps the reward given to miners for providing their computational power to the network at that miner’s investment in the cryptocurrency. So if a miner holds three coins, they can only earn three coins. The system encourages miners to stick with a certain blockchain rather than converting their rewards to an alternate cryptocurrency.

Proof of Stake (POS)
For Proof of Stake, miners still process and validate transactions, but do so by proving that they have ownership of a certain amount of the asset, rather than by performing energy-intensive computations. For PoS, miners lock up” their assets (that’s the stake”) and then promise to fairly process transactions

Proof of work
Proof of work (PoW) is the traditional consensus algorithm that rewards cryptocurrency miners based on how much they contributed to a solved block. The more work performed the more the cryptocurrency miner earns when a block is added to the chain. PoW is used by most cryptocurrencies, but it makes it more difficult for those with low-end mining rigs to earn money.
In order to receive a reward for mining a cryptocurrency, miners must show that their computers contributed effort to approve a transaction. A variable is added to the process of hashing a transaction that demands that effort before a block can be successfully hashed. Having a hashed block proves the miner did work and deserves a reward – hence proof of work.

Proof of Work (POW)
For Proof or Work, so-called miners” process transactions by using computers to solve complicated mathematical puzzles. They proof” that they did this computational work by finding solutions to those puzzles. By doing this, they help validate and process transactions and in turn are paid for their work with transactions fees and with newly created coins.

Proof-of-Authority (PoA)
A blockchain consensus mechanism that delivers comparatively fast transactions using identity as a stake.

Proof-of-Burn (PoB)
A blockchain consensus mechanism aiming to bootstrap one blockchain to another with increased energy efficiency, by verifying that a cost was incurred in burning” a coin by sending it to an unspendable address.

Proof-of-Developer (PoD)
Any verification that provides evidence of a real, living software developer who created a cryptocurrency, in order to prevent an anonymous developer from making away with any raised funds without delivering a working model.

Proof-of-Stake (PoS)
A blockchain consensus mechanism involving choosing the creator of the next block via various combinations of random selection and wealth or age of staked coins or tokens. *see Proof-of-Work (PoW).

Proof-of-Work (PoW)
A blockchain consensus mechanism involving solving of computationally intensive puzzles to validate transactions and create new blocks. *see Proof-of-Stake (PoS).

Protocol
The set of rules that define interactions on a network, usually involving consensus, transaction validation, and network participation on a blockchain.

Protocols
The set of rules that defines how data is exchanged across a network.

Pseudonymous
Writing under a false name, such as Satoshi Nakamoto”.

Public Address
A public address is the cryptographic hash of a public key. They act as email addresses that can be published anywhere, unlike private keys.

Public blockchain
A blockchain that can be accessed by anyone through a full node on their computer.

Public Key
This is your unique wallet address, which appears as a long string of numbers and letters. It is used to receive cryptocurrencies.

Public Key Cryptography
A cryptographic system that uses both a private key and public key to safeguard transactions. It’s the central security-layer behind cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin.

Public Key/Bitcoin address
This is another alphanumeric address/number which is derived from private keys and is used to publicly receive bitcoins.

Pump
This is a term used to refer to an upward price movement, usually driven by whales investing large sums of money in a cryptocurrency.

Pump & Dump
Investment scheme that advertises the benefits of a certain asset, with the hope that a lot of people buy it and raise the price. The asset is then sold by the originator for profit.

Pump and Dump
The frowned-upon practice of buying a lot of one cryptocurrency to drive up its price and encourage others to invest, then selling the lot when there is a suitable margin.

Pump and Dump (P&D) Scheme
A form of securities fraud involving the artificial inflation of the price of a cryptocurrency with false and misleading positive statements in order to sell previously-cheaply purchased stock at a higher price.

QR Code
A machine-readable label that shows information encoded into a graphical black-and-white pattern. For cryptocurrencies, it is often used to easily share wallet addresses with others.

Raiden Network
An off-chain scaling solution aiming to enable near-instant, low-fee and scalable payments on the Ethereum blockchain. It is similar to Bitcoin’s proposed Lightning Network.
An upcoming protocol change to Ethereum that will enable high-speed transfers across the network. It is similar in some aspects to Bitcoin’s planned Lightning Network. The name, I assume, comes from the Mortal Kombat character named Raiden that can shoot lightning.

Rank
The relative position of a cryptocurrency by market capitalization.

Recovery phrase/seed keyword
Random 12, 18, 24 words that are used to derive numerous pairs of private and public keys. Using these seeds, you can restore your wallet in any other supported seed key wallet.

REKT
Shorthand slang for wrecked” and a term used to describe a bad loss in a trade.

Relative Strength Index
A type of technical analysis whereby you determine the momentum of price change over time. It looks at recent changes in price exponentially, with the most recent changes given more weight than older ones. This produces an overall trend of movement for a cryptocurrency that can determine if the market is overbought (a reading higher than 70) or oversold (a reading lower than 30).

Relative Strength Index (RSI)
A form of technical analysis that serves as a momentum oscillator, measuring the speed and change of price movements, developed by J. Welles Wilder. It oscillates between zero and 100, where a cryptocurrency is considered overbought when the indicator is above 70 and oversold when below 30.

Replicated Ledger
A copy of a distributed ledger in a network that is distributed to all participants in a cryptocurrency network.

Return on Investment (ROI)
The percentage gain that was made with an investment or asset. For example, a 100% ROI means that the price of the asset or investment has doubled in value.

Reverse Indicator
A person whom you may use as an indicator of how not to place buy or sell orders because they are always wrong at predicting price movements of cryptocurrencies.

Reward
Rewards are cryptocurrency paid to blockchain miners whenever a block is solved and added to the blockchain. The currency rewarded comes from two sources

Ring Signature
A ring signature is a type of encryption process that retains anonymity for the user. The concept gives the network of nodes the power to approve a transaction on a blockchain without identifying which of the nodes requested the transaction. As a result, it cannot be traced.

Ripple
A Blockchain payment system for banks, payment providers, digital asset exchanges, and other companies. Designed to move large amounts of money more quickly and reliably.
Ripple is a centralized cryptocurrency that is designed to make international payments easier by eliminating exchange rates and cross-border fees. It has faced criticism due to its centralized ledger, which gives the Ripple company—instead of purchasers and investors—the ability to control prices.

ROI
Short for Return on Investment”, the ratio between the net profit and cost of investing.
Return on Investment. The percentage of how much money has been made compared to an initial investment. (i.e., 100% ROI means someone doubled their money).

RSI
Acronym for Relative Strength Index”.

Satoshi
A Satoshi is the smallest unit of Bitcoin. It is named after Satoshi Nakamoto, the creator of Bitcoin. Each BTC is divisible until the 1/10^8 part. A unit of Satoshi is equal to 0.00000001 bitcoin.

Satoshi (SATS)
The smallest unit of bitcoin with a value of 0.00000001 BTC.

Satoshi Nakamoto
The mysterious creator of Bitcoin. Even though Bitcoin was created in 2008, to this day nobody knows his or her true identity. Satoshi could be a woman, a man, or a group.

SATS
This is the smallest unit of bitcoin, which is 0.00000001 BTC. The name SATS is shorthand for Satoshi Nakamoto, which is the fake name used by the creator of bitcoin.

Scam
A fraudulent or deceptive cryptocurrency or ICO.

Scrypt
Scrypt (pronounced ess-crypt) is a cryptographic hash algorithm that is used by several cryptocurrencies as an alternative to SHA-256. Scrypt is simpler, less resource-intensive, and easier to solve than SHA-256, making it a more popular choice for individual miners since they don’t need specialized hardware to mine it. The trade-off is that scrypt is supposedly less secure, though there has been no real-world case of it being cracked.
An alternative Proof-of Work (PoW) algorithm to SHA-256, used in Bitcoin mining. Scrypt mining relies more heavily on memory than on pure CPU power, aiming to reduce the advantage that ASICs have and hence increasing network participation and energy efficiency.
Scrypt is a type of cryptographic algorithm and is used by Litecoin. Compared to SHA256, this is quicker as it does not use up as much processing time.
An algorithm that encrypts a key in such a fashion that it takes a serious amount of RAM to hash it. The system makes it challenging to attack for hackers. Despite its spelling, Scrypt is pronounced ess-crypt”.

SEC
Short for Securities and Exchange Commission. A United States government agency that regulated securities (stocks, bonds, etc.) as well as stock exchanges.

Second-Layer Solutions
A set of solutions built on top of a public blockchain to extend its scalability and efficiency, especially for micro-transactions or actions. Examples include

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
An independent agency of the United States federal government, responsible for enforcing federal securities laws, proposing securities rules, and regulating the securities industry, the nation’s stock and options exchanges, and other related activities and organizations.

Seed
The origin point from which you created your wallet ID. Usually, a seed is a phrase or a series of words that can be used to regenerate your wallet ID if you lose it. Something to keep very secret.

Segregated Witness
The processes of separating digital signature data from transaction data. This lets more transactions fit onto one block in the blockchain, improving transaction speeds.

Segregated Witness (SegWit)
A Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) that aimed to fix transaction malleability on Bitcoin. In the past, when changing the witness” information (signatures) on blocks, it would change the transaction ID and its subsequent hash; SegWit was aiming to fix this by segregating signature and block content; a side effect of this change was smaller block sizes and the ability to support second layer solutions.

SEGWIT
Acronym for segregated witness”.

Selfish Mining
A situation in which a miner mines a new block but does not broadcast this new block to the other miners. If this miner is able to find a second block faster than all other miners, then they would have created the longest public chain, invalidating all other blocks discovered in the time it took to execute this attack.
If a miner finds or creates a new block in the blockchain and then doesn’t share that information with the network, he or she is partaking in selfish mining. This is because other miners are now burning their computational power on an old block, allowing the selfish miner to get a head start on the new block.

Sell Wall
A situation where a large limit order has been placed to sell when a cryptocurrency reaches a certain value. This can sometimes be used by traders to create a certain impression in the market, preventing a cryptocurrency from rising above that value, as supply will likely outstrip demand when the order is executed.
When a large limit order has been placed to sell when a cryptocurrency reaches a certain value, that is a sell wall. This can prevent a cryptocurrency from rising above that value, as supply will likely outstrip demand when the order is executed.

SHA-256
SHA-256 is a cryptographic algorithm used by cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. However, it uses a lot of computing power and processing time, forcing miners to form mining pools to capture gains.
A cryptographic hash function that generates a 256-bit signature for a text, used in Bitcoin Proof-of-Work (PoW). Standing for Secure Hash Algorithm”, it is one of the SHA-2 algorithms, first designed by the NSA.

sharding
A scaling solution for blockchains. Typically, every node in a blockchain network houses a complete copy of the blockchain. Sharding is a method that allows nodes to have partial copies of the complete blockchain in order to increase overall network performance and consensus speeds.
Sharding is a way of splitting up the full blockchain history so each full node doesn’t need the whole copy of it. It’s considered a scaling solution for blockchains because as they grow larger, it begins to slow the network performance if every node is required to carry the full blockchain.

Shill / Shilling
Aggressively advertising an asset for personal financial gain, even to the detriment of others and often while distorting the truth. Also known as pumping.

Shilling
The act of enthusiastically promoting a cryptocurrency or ICO project.

Shilling / pumping
Someone essentially advertising another crypto-currency. If a coin is promised to cure cancer or be the second coming of Jesus, it’s being shilled.

Shit Coin
No points for guessing this one. It’s a term used to describe a cryptocurrency not expected to have a positive future.
A coin with no obvious potential value or usage.

Short
Also known as short selling, this is a concept whereby traders sell an asset they don’t have. The hope is that they can then buy the asset at a lower price than which they sold it to complete the deal. Thereby they earn a margin in the interim.
A trading technique in which a trader borrows an asset in order to sell it, with the expectation that the price will continue to decline. In the event that the price does decline, the short seller will then buy the asset at this lower price in order to return it to the lender of the asset, making the difference in profit.

Side Chain
A blockchain ledger that runs in parallel to a primary blockchain, where there is a two-way link between the primary chain and sidechain. This allows the sidechain to operate independently of the primary blockchain, using their own protocols or ledger mechanisms.

Silk Road
An online black market that existed on the dark web, now shut down by the FBI. It had accepted bitcoins for transactions.

Simplified Payment Verification (SPV)
A lightweight client to verify blockchain transactions, downloading only block headers and requesting proof of inclusion to the blockchain in the Merkle Tree.

Smart contract
A smart contract is a computer protocol intended to facilitate, verify, or enforce a contract on the blockchain without third parties.
When a contract is written in computer code, as opposed to traditional legal language, it is deemed a smart contract. This programmed contract is set up to execute and carry itself out automatically under specified conditions. When a smart contract is on the blockchain, both parties can check its programming before agreeing to it, and then let it do its thing, confident that it cannot be tampered with or changed. It lets two parties agree to complex terms without needing to trust each other and without needing to involve any third parties. This functionality is the defining feature of the Ethereum blockchain.
Code that is deployed onto the Ethereum blockchain, often directly interacting with how money flows. Not my quote, but: A normal transaction allows you to send money from A to B. Smart contracts allow you to send money from A to B, on the condition that C happens.”

Smart Contracts
Smart contracts encode business rules in a programmable language onto the blockchain and are enforced by the participants of the network.

Soft Cap
The minimum amount that an initial coin offering (ICO) wants to raise. Sometimes, if the ICO is unable to raise the soft cap amount, it may be called off entirely. *see Hard Cap.

Soft Fork
A fork in a blockchain protocol where previously valid transactions become invalid. A soft fork is backwards-compatible, as the old nodes running the old protocol will still consider new transactions valid, rather than disregarding them. For a soft fork to work, a majority of the miners powering the network will need to upgrade to the new protocol.
A soft fork differs from a hard fork in that only previously valid transactions are made invalid. Since old nodes recognize the new blocks as valid, a soft fork is essentially backward-compatible. This type of fork requires most miners upgrading in order to enforce, while a hard fork requires all nodes to agree on the new version.

Soft Fork (Blockchain)
A protocol upgrade where only previously valid transactions are made invalid, with most soft forks requiring miners to upgrade their mining software in order to enforce it. *see Hard Fork.

Software Wallet
A common form of wallet where the private key for an individual is stored within software files on a computer. This is the system you are likely to use if you sign up for a wallet online that is not associated with an exchange.
Storage for crypto-currency that exists purely as software files on a computer. Software wallets can be generated for free from a variety of sources. MyEtherWallet (MEW) is one of the popular. (more on MEW below)

Solidity
Solidity is Ethereum’s programming language for developing smart contracts.
One of the most popular languages that smart contracts can be written in. Has some similarities to Javascript.

A programming language similar to JavaScript but focused on developing smart contracts. It’s exported as bytecode, which is used by the Ethereum Virtual Machine that runs the Ethereum network.

Spot
A contract or transaction buying or selling a cryptocurrency for immediate settlement, or payment and delivery, of the cryptocurrency on the market.

Spot Market
A public market in which cryptocurrencies are traded for immediate settlement. It contrasts with a futures market, in which settlement is due at a later date.

Stable Coin
A cryptocurrency with extremely low volatility, sometimes used as a means of portfolio diversification. Examples include gold-backed cryptocurrency or fiat-pegged cryptocurrency.

Staking
Participation in a Proof-of-Stake (PoS) system to put your tokens in to serve as a validator to the blockchain and receive rewards.

Stale Block
A block which was successfully mined but not included on the current longest blockchain, usually because another block at the same height was added to the chain first.

State Channel
A second-layer scaling solution that reduces the total on-chain transactions necessary, moving the transactions off-chain and letting participants sign to the main chain after multiple off-chain transactions.

Supply
Supply refers to a total amount of a particular cryptocurrency and is divided into three terms

Symbol
The ticker of a cryptocurrency; for example, Bitcoin’s symbol is BTC.

TA
Acronym for technical analysis”.
Trend Analysis or Technical Analysis. Refers to the process of examining current charts in order to predict which way the market will move next.

Taint
The percentage of cryptocurrency in an account that can be traced to another account.

Tangle
The Tangle is a blockchain alternative developed by IOTA, using directed acyclic graphs which only builds in one single direction and in a way that it never repeats, and is quantum-computing resistant.

Technical Analysis
Using a trading tool to look at historical data on a cryptocurrency in the hope of forecasting its future.

Technical Analysis / Trend Analysis (TA)
An evaluation method involving statistical analyses of market activity, such as price and volume. Charts and other tools are used to identify patterns to underpin and drive investment decisions.

Testnet
An alternative blockchain that is not public and live. It is used to test new code and doesn’t transact any real money or value. Allows developers to experiment and learn.
A test blockchain used by developers to prevent expending assets on the main chain.
When a cryptocurrency creator is testing out a new version of a blockchain, it does so on a test net. This runs like a second version of the blockchain but doesn’t impact the value associated with the primary, active blockchain.

The Flippening
A potential future event wherein Ethereum’s market cap surpasses Bitcoin’s market cap, making Ethereum the most ‘valuable’ crypto-currency.

Think Long Term (TLT)
A mindset where you have a longer-term investment horizon of months to years.

This is Gentlemen
Originally an error in writing the full This is it, gentlemen”. It is now used as an introduction for good news.
This is it, gentlemen”. Used to point out positive things that are currently happening.

Ticker
An abbreviation used to uniquely identify cryptocurrencies. *see Symbol.

Timelock / Locktime
A condition for a transaction to only be processed at a certain time or block on the blockchain.

Timestamp
A form of identification for when a certain transaction occurred, usually with date and time of day and accurate to fractions of a second.
The moment in time when a transaction was encrypted and regarded as proof that the data compiled in that transaction existed.

To The Moon
Refers to price moving to astronomical heights.

Token
Cryptocurrency tokens, like physical tokens used in the real world, are representations of some kind of asset. Tokens in the cryptocurrency world typically represent a certain amount of cryptocurrency (similar to how poker chips represent certain amounts of fiat money), and are usually issued on top of another blockchain to represent a utility or asset used by that blockchain. Tokens are a key part of ICOs—when an ICO investor buys in, they are typically awarded with tokens instead of actual hard cryptocurrency.
A digital unit designed with utility in mind, providing access and use of a larger cryptoeconomic system. It does not have store of value on its own, but are made so that software can be developed around it.
A unit of value for a blockchain system. Tokens can be used for payment, access, voting, and facilitating the overall blockchain infrastructure. Most tokens are based on Ethereum.

Token Generation Event
The time at which a token is issued.

Tokenize
The process by which real-world assets are turned into something of digital value called a token, often subsequently able to offer ownership of parts of this asset to different owners.

Tokenless Ledger
Refers to a distributed blockchain ledger that doesn’t require a token (see above) or other native digital currency to function and to facilitate transactions.
When a distributed ledger exists but doesn’t need a currency in which to operate. With these blockchains, the miners upholding the network typically don’t get a reward/payment.

Tokens
Refers to the ‘currency’ of projects built on the ethereum network that have raised money via issuing their own tokens. Examples:
GNT – Golem
REP – Augur
BAT – Basic Attention Token
ICN – Iconomi

TOR
Acronym for terms of reference”.
Tor is free software for enabling anonymous communication. The name is derived from an acronym for the original software project name The Onion Router. It consists of a network of volunteer relays to conceal users’ location and usage.

Total Supply
The total amount of coins in existence right now, minus any coins that have been verifiably burned. *see Circulating Supply and Max Supply.

Trade Volume
Is the amount of the cryptocurrency that has been traded in the last 24 hours.

Transaction
The value of cryptocurrency moved from one entity to another on a blockchain network.

Transaction (TX)
The act of exchanging cryptocurrencies on a blockchain.

Transaction Block
A collection of transactions gathered into a block that can then be hashed and added to the blockchain.
Each block that is mined and added to the blockchain consists of a list of transactions, such as buying or selling coins, trades, or purchases using cryptocurrency.

Transaction Fee
All cryptocurrency transactions involve a small transaction fee. These transaction fees add up to account for the block reward that a miner receives when he successfully processes a block.
Whenever an individual buys, sells, trades, or otherwise uses cryptocurrency, they have to request that a miner mines their transaction, adds it to a transaction block, and then adds the completed block containing their transaction to the blockchain. In order to ensure a transaction is mined, a fee has to be paid to incentivize miners to solve it. Transaction fees aren’t fixed, but offering too little can result in a failed transaction, while offering too much simply means the user is wasting money. Failed transactions can be dangerous for cryptocurrency users—if a transaction doesn’t make it to the blockchain, someone else could theoretically spend the same coin, robbing the user of its value.
Usually very small fees given to the miners involved in successfully approving a transaction on the blockchain. This fee can vary depending on the difficulty involved in a transaction and overall network capabilities at that moment in time. If an exchange is involved in facilitating that transaction, it could also take a cut of the overall transaction fee.
Payment made to the volunteers who process transactions on a blockchain (miners). Transaction fees can vary by cryptocurrency and also by the desired transaction speed.

Transaction fees
Bitcoin transaction incentives that the miners receive for mining block via bitcoins, which is actually a small fee that the bitcoin users pay in order to complete BTC transactions.

Transaction ID
Another alphanumeric string through which you can publicly see the transfer details (amount sent, sending/receiving bitcoin address, as well as the date of transfer) on the bitcoin blockchain.

Trezor
A popular hardware cryptocurrency wallet. Trezor was the first Bitcoin hardware but today offers support for altcoins such as Ethereum, Litecoin, Dash, and more.

Trustless
Blockchains are trustless because no participant needs to trust any other participant for transactions to work out. Trust comes from the system itself, which is impartial.
A property of the blockchain, where no participant needs to trust any other participant for transactions to be enforced as intended.

Tumbler
Another name for a mixing service.

Turing Complete
Turing complete refers to the ability of a machine to perform calculations that any other programmable computer is capable of. An example of this is the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM).
A computer system or computer language is Turing complete (computationally universal), if it can process any code that a general-purpose computer could. Example

Turing-Complete
Turing-complete refers to the ability of a machine to perform calculations that any other programmable computer is capable of. An example of this is the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM).
If a machine is capable of performing all conceivable programmable calculations, then it is Turing complete. This machine can process any computable function and includes most modern computers.

Unconfirmed
A state in which a transaction has not been appended to the blockchain.
When a transaction is proposed, it is unconfirmed until the network has examined the blockchain to ensure that there are no other transactions pending involving that same coin. In the unconfirmed state, the transaction has not been appended to the blockchain.

Unpermissioned Ledger
A public blockchain.
A ledger that doesn’t require the approval of a central authority to be used. It is not owned by anyone and open to participation. A good example is Bitcoin itself.

Unspent Transaction Output
An output of a blockchain transaction that has not been spent, and can be used as an input for new transactions.
This refers to the amount of cryptocurrency sent to an entity but not sent on elsewhere. These amounts are considered unspent and are the data stored in the blockchain.

UTC Time
Coordinated Universal Time. It is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time, kept using highly precise atomic clocks combined with the Earth’s rotation.

Utility Token
A token that grants owners access to Blockchain products or services for specific projects. These tokens are not intended to be investments or to grant equity ownership in a project, though some investors speculate on a potential future price increase. Utility tokens are also known as utility coins, app coins, and user tokens.

UTXO
Acronym for unspent transaction output”.

Validator
A participant on a Proof-of-Stake (PoS) blockchain, involved in validating blocks for rewards.

Vanity Address
A cryptocurrency public address (see above) that includes custom letters and numbers that are human-readable. An example would look like 1r4523COINCOIN7u01174234kf.

Vaporware
A cryptocurrency project that is never actually developed.

Venture Capital
A form of private equity provided to fund small, early-stage firms considered to have high growth potential.

Virgin Bitcoin
A bitcoin that has never been spent.

Vitalik Buterin
Rusian-Canadian programmer and creator of the decentralized application platform Ethereum. Born 1994, Vitalik also contributed to other open-source projects.

Volatility
A statistical measure of dispersion of returns, measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index.
The fluctuation in an asset’s price is measured by its volatility. Cryptocurrency prices are notoriously volatile compared to other assets, as dramatic price shifts can happen quickly.
Created by the rapid and repeated move of an asset’s price in both directions (up and down). Volatility adds uncertainty and risk to a market, but can also present opportunity.

Volume
The amount of cryptocurrency that has been traded during a certain period of time, such as the last 24 hours or more. Volume can show the direction and movement of the cryptocurrency as well as a prediction of future price and its demand.

Wallet
A cryptocurrency wallet is a secure digital wallet used to store, send, and receive digital currency, and are divided into two categories
A wallet is a digital storage space for cryptocurrency. Wallets can be apps, cloud-based websites, or just a plain TXT document stored on a hard drive. If a cryptocurrency wallet is stolen, or its private key is revealed, anyone has access to the coins it contains—just like having your wallet stolen in real life.
A wallet is defined by a unique code that represents its address” on the blockchain. The wallet address is public, but within it is a number of private keys determining ownership of the balance and the balance itself. It can exist in software, hardware, paper or other forms.
A file that houses private keys. It usually contains a software client which allows access to view and create transactions on a specific blockchain that the wallet is designed for.

Wash Trade
A form of market manipulation in which investors create artificial activity in the marketplace by simultaneously selling and buying the same cryptocurrencies.

Watchlist
A watchlist is a feature of the website where users can create their own lists of cryptocurrencies to follow. Alternative definition

Weak Hands
An investor prone to panic selling at the first sign of a price decline.

Web Wallet
A type of cryptocurrency wallet that is online (hot storage). Most cryptocurrency exchange wallets are web wallets. Popular for their convenience but can increase hacking risk.

Wei
The smallest fraction of an Ether coin (Ether is the native currency of the Ethereum network). One Ether is made of 1000000000000000000 Wei, making Ether very divisible.

Whale
Someone that owns absurd amounts of crypto-currency.
A term used to describe investors who have uncommonly large amounts of crypto, especially those with enough funds to manipulate the market. *see Fish/Minnow and Dolphin.
It refers to an entity or a person who holds an absurd amount of particular cryptocurrency and has the potential to manipulate the market.

When Lambo
The extended expression for Lambo.

When Moon
The extended expression for Moon.

White Paper
A detailed explanation of a cryptocurrency, designed to offer satisfactory technical information, explain the purpose of the coin and set out a roadmap for how it plans to succeed. It’s designed to convince investors that it’s a good choice ahead of an ICO.

Whitelist
A list of interested participants in an ICO, who registered their intent to take part or purchase in a sale.
Prior to an ICO, interested parties can sign up/register their involvement and intent to purchase or even purchase under pre-sale conditions. The list of these parties is referred to as the whitelist.

Whitepaper
A formal, scientifically-written description of an idea or project. Whitepapers cover the theory and practical applications of cryptocurrencies, as well as many technical details.
A document prepared by an ICO project team to interest investors with its vision, cryptocurrency use and cryptoeconomic design, technical information, and a roadmap for how it plans to grow and succeed.
A report which articulates the problem and solution that the blockchain project/cryptocurrency is trying to solve.

XBT and BTC
Common abbreviations for bitcoin. There is no difference between these two abbreviations.

XMR
XMR is the short ticker symbol for Monero, which is often used on exchanges and other financial platforms. Monero is a privacy-focused, untraceable cryptocurrency.

YTD
Stands for Year to Date.

Zero Confirmation Transaction
Alternative phrasing for an unconfirmed transaction.
Cryptocurrency transactions are confirmed at regular intervals. New transactions have zero confirmations, which means they have not been verified yet and are less reliable.

Zero Knowledge Proof
In cryptography, a zero knowledge proof enables one party to provide evidence that a transaction or event happened without revealing private details of that transaction or event.

Crypto Exchange
A website that helps one buy/sell cryptocurrencies. Here is a list of top exchanges.


Ethereum

Ethereum is a blockchain-based decentralised platform for apps that run smart contracts, and is aimed at solving issues associated with censorship, fraud and third party interference.


Hybrid PoS/PoW

A hybrid PoS/PoW allows for both Proof of Stake and Proof of Work as consensus distribution algorithms on the network. In this method, a balance between miners and voters (holders) may be achieved, creating a system of community-based governance by both insiders (holders) and outsiders (miners).

1hr
Stands for data for the past 1 hour.

24hr
Stands for data for the past 24 hours.

30d
Stands for data for the past 30 days.

51% Attack
If more than half the computer power or mining hash rate on a network is run by a single person or a single group of people, then a 51% attack is in operation. This means that this entity has full control of the network and can negatively affect a cryptocurrency by taking over mining operations, stopping or changing transactions, and double-spending (reusing) coins.
When more than half of the computing power of a cryptocurrency network is controlled by a single entity or group, this entity or group may issue conflicting transactions to harm the network, should they have the malicious intent to do so.
Cryptocurrency’s strength comes from a distributed computer network. If anybody gains control of more than 50% of them, they control the network and can double spend coins.

7d
Stands for data for the past 7 days.

Address
Cryptocurrency addresses are used to send or receive transactions on the network. An address usually presents itself as a string of alphanumeric characters.
A place where cryptocurrency can be sent to and from, in the form of a string of letters and numbers. A cryptocurrency address can be shared publicly in the form of text or QR code to those who want to send you cryptocurrency.
A string of letters and numbers that are used to receive cryptocurrency. Works similar to a traditional bank account number and can be shared publicly with others.
Every cryptocurrency coin has a unique address that identifies where it sits on the blockchain. It’s this address, this location, at which the coin’s ownership data is stored and where any changes are registered when it is traded. These addresses differ in appearance between cryptocurrencies but are usually a string of more than 30 characters.

Airdrop
This is a marketing campaign that refers to the expedited distribution of a cryptocurrency through a population of people. It usually occurs when the creator of a cryptocurrency provides its coin to low-ranked traders or existing community members in order to build their use and popularity. They are usually given away for free or in exchange for simple tasks like sharing news of the coin with friends.
A marketing campaign that distributes a specific cryptocurrency or token to an audience. It is usually initiated by the creator of a cryptocurrency in order to encourage use and build popularity of the coin or token. Most airdrop campaigns run with mechanics such as receiving coins or tokens in exchange for simple tasks like sharing news, referring friends, or downloading an app.

Algorithm
A process or set of rules to be followed in problem-solving or calculation operations, usually by a computer, although humans tend to follow steps algorithmically as well (let’s say doing math or following a recipe).
Mathematic instructions coded into and implemented by computer software in order to produce a desired outcome.

All Time High (ATH)
Refers to the maximum price of an asset, higher than at any other time in its trading history. Cryptocurrencies have risen dramatically, creating many consecutive ATHs.
The highest price ever achieved by a cryptocurrency.
The highest point (in price, in market capitalization) that a cryptocurrency has been in history. *see All-Time-Low (ATL).

All-Time-Low (ATL)
The lowest point (in price, in market capitalization) that a cryptocurrency has been in history. *see All-Time-High (ATH).
The lowest price ever achieved by a cryptocurrency.

Altcoin
Generally any crypto-currency other than Bitcoin or Ethereum. (Though some Bitcoin folks would probably still say Ethereum is an altcoin)
As Bitcoin is the first cryptocurrency that captured the world’s imagination, all other coins were subsequently termed altcoins”, as in alternative coins”.
When people think cryptocurrency, Bitcoin is usually the first thing that comes to mind, and with good reason
Describes all crytocurrencies that are not Bitcoin – like Ethereum, Litecoin, and Monero. It is short for Alternative Coin (AKA coins that were created after Bitcoin).

Altcoins
Bitcoin was the first and is the most successful of all the cryptocurrencies. All the other coins are grouped together under the category of altcoins. Ethereum, for example, is an altcoin, as is Ripple.
Alternative cryptocurrencies to Bitcoin. Examples: Ethereum, Litecoin, Dogecoin etc.

AML
Acronym for Anti-Money Laundering”

Anarcho-capitalism
A political philosophy and school of thought that believes in removing centralized states in favor of self-ownership, private property and free markets. Many of the early adopters of Bitcoin were proponents of anarcho-capitalism, believing it would give power and control back to the masses.

Anti Money Laundering (AML)
Laws and regulations in the United States and other countries to prevent illegal activities. Compells exchanges and other money transmitters to report suspicious activity.
These are a set of international laws that hope to prevent criminal organizations or individuals from laundering money through cryptocurrencies into real-world cash.
A set of international laws enacted to curtail criminal organizations or individuals laundering money through cryptocurrencies into real-world cash.

API
API stands for Application Programming Interface. It is a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications. APIs specify how software components should interact, such as what data to use and what actions should be taken.

Application Specific Integrated Circuit
A piece of computer hardware – similar to a graphics card or a CPU – that has been designed specifically to mine cryptocurrency. They are built specifically to solve hashing problems efficiently.

Arbitrage
There are multiple exchanges at any given time trading in the same cryptocurrency, and they can do so at different rates. Arbitrage is the act of buying from one exchange and then selling it to the next exchange if there is a margin between the two that is profitable.
Taking advantage of a difference in price of the same commodity on two different exchanges. Often mentioned when it comes to comparing ETH prices on Korean exchanges against US exchanges.
A practice of taking advantage of differences in price of the same commodity in two or more markets or exchanges. For example, cryptocurrency prices on Korean exchanges can be different from those on US exchanges. An arbitrage trader would be in both markets in order to buy in one and sell in another for profit.
Taking advantage of the price difference of an asset on two different markets or exchanges, often internationally. The price difference is used for a quick profit.

Ashdraked
A situation where you lose all your money, more specifically when you lose all your money shorting Bitcoin. This was based on a story of a Romanian trader who continued to short BTC when it went from $300 to $500, since he had made a lot of profit doing so historically. Adapt your trading strategy!

ASIC
Short for ‘Application Specific Integrated Circuit’; it is a mining equipment that is used specifically to mine a certain cryptocurrency. Often compared to GPUs, ASICs are specially created and bought for mining purposes and offer significant efficiency improvements and power savings due to its narrow use case.
Application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) are chipsets built to perform a very specific task. Many ASICs are built to mine cryptocurrency, and are a huge improvement in power consumption and speed over graphics processing units (GPUs) that have been the most common hardware to date.
A type of computer chip. For cryptocurrencies, it’s used to mine new coins efficiently (see mining below). Short for Application Specific Integrated Circuit.

ASIC Miner
An application-specific integrated circuit machine designed specifically for mining cryptocurrencies.

Astroturfing
A deceptive practice where a sponsor is masked or hidden, making it seem as though a marketing message came from and is strongly supported by the community when it is not.

ATH
Acronym for All Time High”
All-Time-High. We’ve gotten a lot of these the past couple months.

ATL
Acronym for All Time Low”

Atomic Swap
A way of letting people directly exchange one type of cryptocurrency for another on a different blockchain or off-chain without a centralized intermediary such as an exchange.

Attestation Ledger
An attestation ledger is an account book designed to provide evidence of individual transactions. It is generally used to attest” that a financial transaction took place, or to prove authenticity of transactions or products.
A distributed ledger that codifies agreements, statements, and other facts into the Blockchain. Can provide evidence to attest that something actually happened.

Bag
A significant quantity of a specific cryptocurrency is considered a bag”. How many depends on the definition of the person using the expression. *see Bagholder.
If you have a large quantity of units in a certain cryptocurrency, you’d have a bag of them.

Bagholder
A person who holds large quantities, or bags, of a cryptocurrency. Often used to describe such a person when the price of that cryptocurrency is declining.
Someone still holding an altcoin after a pump and dump crash. Can also just refer to someone holding a coin that is sinking in value with few future prospects.
Someone still holding an altcoin after a pump and dump crash.
A person who is still holding an asset after a pump and dump scheme

Bear
A person who is pessimistic about market prices and expects them to go down. This person is also known to be bearish about the market and price expectations.

Bear Trap
This is a trick played by a group of traders aimed at manipulating the price of a cryptocurrency. The bear trap is set by this group all selling their cryptocurrency at the same time, which bluffs the market into thinking there is a drop incoming. As a result, other traders sell their assets, further driving the price down. Those who set the trap then release it, buying back their assets, which are now at a lower price. The overall price then rebounds, allowing them to make a profit.

Bear Trap
A technique played by a group of traders, aimed at manipulating the price of a cryptocurrency. The bear trap is set by selling a large amount of the same cryptocurrency at the same time, fooling the market into thinking there is an upcoming price decline. In response, other traders sell their assets, further driving the price down. Those who set the trap then release it, buying back their assets at a lower price. The price then rebounds, allowing them to make a profit.
A false market signal where the rising trend of an asset appears to be turning down, but actually is not. Short sellers are forced to to exit their positions to stop losing money.

Bear/Bearish
If the price of a cryptocurrency has a negative price movement.

Bearish
An expectation that price is going to decrease.
A feeling based on some factors that the the price of a crypto will decrease.

Bit
A sub-unit of bitcoin. 1 bitcoin (BTC) = 1,000,000 bits. You can always buy and sell less than one bitcoin.

Bitcoin
The very first cryptocurrency. It was created in 2008 by an individual or group of individuals operating under the name Satoshi Nakamoto. It was intended to be a peer-to-peer, decentralized electronic cash system.
When the B is capitalized, it represents the overarching concept of Bitcoin: The technology, the community, the protocol, and the software.
Bitcoin is the first decentralised, open source cryptocurrency that runs on a global peer to peer network, without the need for middlemen and a centralised issuer.
Bitcoin is the original form of cryptocurrency; it was developed by a programmer or a group of programmers going by the name Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin is a decentralized cryptocurrency that relies on the blockchain to distribute its ledger and record proof of work.

bitcoin
When the b is not capitalized, it is describing the unit of currency.

bitcoin (lowercase)
When using the word bitcoin as a unit of measure (e.g. 1 bitcoin), it is used in the lower case version. When using Bitcoin as the name, it is spelled in the upper case version.

Bitcoin (uppercase)
The first decentralized cryptocurrency created 2008 by Satoshi Nakamoto. Lets you send and receive money without any middlemen like banks.

Bitcoin ATM (BTM)
A machine from which you can withdraw Bitcoin.

Bitcoin Cash
This cryptocurrency is a hard fork of Bitcoin that was created to decrease fees associated with Bitcoin transactions by increasing block size. It’s also designed to be more spendable than Bitcoin.
A clone (AKA fork) of Bitcoin that focuses on processing high volumes of transactions differently. Created because of disagreements about how to best grow digital currency.

Bitcoin Gold
A clone (AKA fork”) of Bitcoin that focuses on handling high volumes of transactions differently. Similar to Bitcoin Cash and also created because of community disagreements.

Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP)
A technical design document providing information to the Bitcoin community, describing new proposed features, processes or environments affecting the Bitcoin protocol. Suggested changes to the protocol are submitted as a BIP. The BIP author is responsible for soliciting feedback and consensus for his or her suggested improvements within the community, and documenting dissenting opinions.

Bitcoin wallet (Hardware, Software, Mobile wallet)
A physical or software object where you have a combination of public and private key stored. Here you can find a list of best hardware wallets.

BitLicense
The controversial business license issued for cryptocurrency companies in New York. Created and provided by the New York State Department of Financial Services (NYSDFS).

Bits
A sub-unit of one bitcoin. There are 1,000,000 bits in one bitcoin.

Block
The blockchain is made up of blocks. Each block holds a historical database of all cryptocurrency transactions made until the block is full. It’s a permanent record, like a bag of data that can be opened and viewed at any time.
Blocks are packages of data that carry permanently recorded data on the blockchain network.
A group of bundled-up transactions which miners choose to verify.
Blockchains consist of individual blocks that are added to the ledger as they are mined. Once a block has reached a predetermined size (which varies from cryptocurrency to cryptocurrency), it is verified and added to the blockchain.

Block Explorer
An online tool for exploring the blockchain of a cryptocurrency, where you can watch and follow, live, all the transactions happening on the blockchain. Block explorers can serve as blockchain analysis and provide information such as total network hash rate, coin supply, transaction growth, etc.

Block Explorer
Block explorer is an online tool to view all transactions, past and current, on the blockchain. They provide useful information such as network hash rate and transaction growth.
A tool to see detailed information of transactions, accounts, and other activity on a Blockchain. Depending on the cryptocurrency, sweeping data or limited data is available.

Block Halving
Bitcoin’s supply of new coins issued to miners is cut in half about every four years to keep it scarce. This 50% cut is known as the halving. The next halving will be around 2020.

Block Height
Refers to the total number of blocks on a given cryptocurrency blockchain. It starts with the first block, also known as the Genesis Block (Height 0) and counts up from there.
The number of blocks preceding the block in question on the blockchain, or can be thought of as total blocks in the chain before this point.

Block Reward
An incentive for a miner who successfully calculates a valid hash in a block during mining. By contributing to the security and liveness of the chain, the miner is rewarded with this incentive, ensuring that miners continue to act in the best interest of the blockchain by legitimately taking part in the process (instead of hacking it).
It is a reward in the form of native cryptocurrency given to miners for solving a computationally difficult problem. Bitcoin miners now get 12.5 BTC for solving each problem for adding blocks to the blockchain.
A form of incentive for the miner who successfully calculates the hash (verification) in a block. Verification of transactions on the blockchain generates new coins in the process, and the miner is rewarded with a portion of these.
Payment made to the volunteers who offer their computers to facilitate transactions on a blockchain network. The payment can be a mix of new coins and transaction fees.

Block Size
Shows the file size of each block on a blockchain and therefore how many transactions can be bundled and processed in each one. For Bitcoin, the current block size is 1MB.

Blockchain
The blockchain is a digital ledger of all the transactions ever made in a particular cryptocurrency. It’s comprised of individual blocks (see definition above) that are chained to each other through a cryptographic signature. Each time a block’s capacity is reached, a new block is added to the chain. The blockchain is repeatedly copied and saved onto thousands of computers all around the world, and it must always match each copy. As there is no master copy stored in one location, it’s considered decentralized.
The classification of technology that Ethereum falls into. Blockchains are distributed ledgers, secured by cryptography. They are essentially public databases that everyone can access and read, but the data can only be updated by the data owners. Instead of the data residing on a single centralized server, the data is copied across thousands and thousands of computers worldwide.
A blockchain is a shared ledger where transactions are permanently recorded by appending blocks. The blockchain serves as a historical record of all transactions that ever occurred, from the genesis block to the latest block, hence the name blockchain.
A blockchain is a continuously growing, append-only, list of records called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography.

Bollinger Band
A tool developed by Bollinger to help in the recognition of systemic pattern recognition in prices; it is a band that is plotted two standard deviations away from the simple moving average, or exponential moving average in some cases.
A margin around the price of a crypto that helps indicate when a coin is overbought or oversold.

Bots
Automated trading software bots that execute trade orders extremely quickly, based on a preset algorithm of buy-and-sell rules.

Brute Force Attack (BFA)
A method of trial-and-error, in which automated software generates and tries a large number of possible combinations in order to crack a code or key.

BTC
BTC is the short ticker symbol for Bitcoin, which is often used on exchanges and other financial platforms. Bitcoin is the first decentralized cryptocurrency, created 2008.

BTFD
Acronym for Buy The F$%king Dip”

Bubble
A bubble describes a situation where market participants drive prices up above their value, which is usually followed by a steep, rapid drop in prices as the market corrects.

Bug Bounty
A reward offered for finding vulnerabilities and issues in computer code. It is often offered by cryptocurrency companies like protocols, exchanges and wallets to identify potential security breaches or bugs before they are exploited by unfriendly parties.

Bull
A person that is optimistic and confident that market prices will be going up. This person is also known to be bullish about the market and price expectations.

Bull Trap
A false market signal where the falling trend of a asset appears to be turning up, but actually is not. Long buyers can be forced to exit their positions to stop loosing money.

Bull/Bullish
If the price of a cryptocurrency has a positive price movement.

Bullish
An expectation that price is going to increase.
A feeling based on some factors that the price of a crypto will increase.

Burned
When a coin or token has been made permanently unspendable or unusable.
If a coin in any particular cryptocurrency has been made unspendable, it is said to be burned.

Buy The (F*******) Dip (BTD/BTFD)
An enthusiastic exclamation by supporters of a cryptocurrency to buy while prices are at a low point.

Buy the F$%king Dip
A less-than-savory phrase used when you’re (enthusiastically) telling someone a currency has dipped to a low value and should be bought.

Buy Wall
A situation where a large limit order has been placed to buy when a cryptocurrency reaches a certain value. This can sometimes be used by traders to create a certain impression in the market, preventing a cryptocurrency from falling below that value, as demand will likely outstrip supply when the order is executed.
When a large limit order has been placed to buy when a cryptocurrency reaches a certain value, then that is a buy wall. This can prevent a cryptocurrency from falling below that value, as demand will likely outstrip supply when the order is executed.

Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT)
A property of fault-tolerant distributed computing systems, reaching consensus through a mechanism, where components may fail and there may be imperfect information. For example, Bitcoin is Byzantine Fault Tolerant, utilizing the Proof-of-Work system to reach consensus on the blockchain. Its applications are beyond blockchain, including messaging and networking systems, among others.

Byzantine Generals’ Problem
A situation where communication that requires consensus on a single strategy from all members within a group or party cannot be trusted or verified. An example of this agreement problem is where a group of generals, encircled around a city, must decide whether to attack or retreat. Every general must agree to attack or retreat, or everyone will be worse off. Some generals may be treacherous, voting falsely, and messengers may deliver false votes. Under these circumstances, a consensus must be reached. In cryptocurrency, when network participants post false or inaccurate information to others about transactions taking place, it could lead to network failure. *see Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT).

Candlesticks
Candlesticks is a graphing technique used to show changes in price over time. Each candle provides 4 points of information

CAP
Shorthand for market capitalization (see definition below)

Cash
Cash is physical form of a currency, such as banknotes or coins.

Central Ledger
A ledger maintained by a central agency.
When a single entity has control of all financial records, it is considered to be a central ledger. This is how banks operate.
A ledger maintained by a centralized agency (such as a bank) that records all financial transactions

Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Central Processing Unit, also known as a processor or CPU, is defined as the brains” of the computer, coordinating different components running on a computer. CPU clock speed is measured in gigahertz or GHz for short.

Centralized
An organization structure in which a small number of nodes is in control of an entire network.

Centralized ledger
Not all blockchain ledgers are decentralized and distributed. Some ledgers, like the blockchain that is associated with the Ripple altcoin, are controlled by a single entity that has ultimate authority over its contents.

Chain Linking
Each cryptocurrency has its own blockchain – the digital ledger that stores all transaction records. Chain linking is the process that occurs if you transfer one cryptocurrency to another. This requires the transaction to be lodged in two separate blockchains, so they must link together to achieve the goal.

Chain Split
Another term used to describe Fork.

Change
Bitcoin transactions are made up of inputs and outputs, in a system called Unspent Transaction Output. When you send bitcoins, you can only send them in a whole output, and the rest are sent back as change.

Chargeback
A demand made by a credit-card provider for a retailer to make good on the loss on a fraudulent or disputed transaction, reversing said payment or money transfer after it was authorized.
Intraditional payment systems (like credit cards), a customer can reverse a transaction and force the merchant to return funds. This is prevented with cryptocurrencies.

Cipher
The name given to the algorithm that encrypts and decrypts information.

Circulating Supply
The total number of coins in a cryptocurrency that are in the publicly tradable space is considered the circulating supply. Some coins can be locked, reserved or burned, therefore unavailable to public trading.

Client
Software that can access blockchain on a local computer and also help process blockchain transactions. Often includes a cryptocurrency software wallet.

Close
Refers to the closing price; similar to the same term used in financial stocks.

Cloud Mining
Mining with remote processing power rented from companies operating outfits in countries like Iceland, where the electricity is abundant and cost-efficient, and the ambient temperature is cold year-round. Another term for this is mining contract.

Coin
A coin is a cryptocurrency that can operate independently.

Coinbase
First designed in the Bitcoin system, a coinbase is a compulsorily-included transaction on a block, the output of which directs where to send the mining reward to. In the Bitcoin system, the coinbase has a 100 byte size input, where messages can be attached or used as an extra nonce.

cold storage
The process of moving crypto-currency ‘offline’, as a way of safekeeping your crypto-currency from hacking. There are a variety of ways to do this, but some methods most commonly used:
—Printing out the QR code of a software wallet and storing it somewhere safe, such as a safety deposit box.
—Moving the files of a software wallet onto a USB drive and storing it somewhere safe.
—Using a hardware wallet.
A kind of storage where you keep Bitcoin private keys offline.
Offline storage of cryptocurrencies, typically involving hardware non-custodial wallets, USBs, offline computers, or paper wallets. *see Hot Storage.

Cold Wallet
A cryptocurrency wallet that is in cold storage, i.e. not connected to the internet.

Confirmation
A transaction is only confirmed when it is included in a block on the blockchain, at which point it has one confirmation. Each additional block is another confirmation. Different exchanges require a different number of confirmations to consider a cryptocurrency transaction final.
When a Bitcoin transaction takes place, the blockchain confirms the transaction’s validity. The confirmation is done by miners” every 10 minutes when a block is mined. It is always advised that you wait for at least 6 confirmations to avoid double spending.
The successful act of hashing a transaction and adding it to the blockchain.
Each past block makes a transaction more irreversible because it stores them more deeply in the blockchain. Each time that happens it is called a confirmation.

Consensus
When a transaction is made, all nodes on the network verify that it is valid on the blockchain, and if so, they have a consensus.
Consensus is achieved when all participants of the network agree on the validity of the transactions, ensuring that the ledgers are exact copies of each other.
Blocks can’t be added to a blockchain without a majority of users reaching a consensus as to their validity.
An automated mechanism that allows blockchain participants to agree on which transactions happened and in which order. This agreement is known as a trustless consensus.

Consensus Point
A point in time when blockchain participants agree on which transactions happened and in which order. Can be based on a time interval or based on a volume of transactions.

Consensus Process
Refers to those nodes that are responsible for maintaining the blockchain ledger so that a consensus can be reached when a transaction is made.

Consortium Blockchain
A privately-owned and -operated blockchain in which a consortium shares information not readily available to the public, while relying on the immutable and transparent properties of the blockchain.

Correction
A correction is a (usually negative) reverse movement of at least 10% in a cryptocurrency or general market, to adjust for over- or under-valuations.

Co-Signer
A person or entity that has partial control and access over a cryptocurrency wallet.

Cryptocurrency
Also known as tokens, cryptocurrencies are representations of digital assets.
A form of money that exists as encrypted, digital information. Operating independently of any banks, a cryptocurrency uses sophisticated mathematics to regulate the creation and transfer of funds between entities.
A cryptocurrency is a digital medium of exchange using strong cryptography to secure financial transactions, control the creation of additional units, and verify the transfer of assets.
A digital currency that uses strong computer code (cryptography) and a decentralized system to allow for transactions without using middlemen like banks. AKA digital currency.

Cryptographic hash
Hashes are the cryptography part of cryptocurrency, and are what makes a blockchain secure, verifiable, and unhackable. Cryptographic hashes can take inputs of variable length, but always output a fixed-length string of numbers and letters. Most cryptocurrencies use SHA-265, which always outputs a 256-bit string regardless of whether the input is hello or an entire sentence.

Cryptographic Hash Function
Cryptographic hashes produce a fixed-size and unique hash value from variable-size transaction input. The SHA-256 algorithm is an example of a cryptographic hash function.
This process happens on a node and involves converting an input – such as a transaction – into a fixed, encrypted alphanumeric string that registers its place in the blockchain. This conversion is controlled by a hashing algorithm, which is different for each cryptocurrency.

Cryptography
A field of study and practice to secure information, preventing third parties from reading information to which they are not privy.
A branch of mathematics and computer science that is behind the invention of cryptocurrencies.
The process of encrypting and decrypting information.

Crypto-jacking
The use of another party’s computer to mine cryptocurrency without their consent.

Cryptomining malware
As cryptocurrency has gained value, malware creators have quickly stepped up their efforts to build malware that uses infected CPUs to mine cryptocurrency—then, the coder adds it to their personal wallet. Different forms of cryptomining malware exists—some of the malware installs apps on mobile devices and computers, and some malware operate as scripts that run from the web.

Custodial
Usually referring to the storage of keys, in relation to wallets or exchanges, a custodial set-up is one in which private keys are being held by the service provider while they provide a login account. *see Non-custodial.

Cypherpunk
An activist who advocates for the mass adoption and use of strong cryptographic solutions and privacy-enhancing technologies to enact social and political progress.

DAICO
A method for decentralized funding of projects. It combines ideas from Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs) and Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs). Project investors have the ability to vote and, if dissatisfied with the project’s progress, could get their money back. Proposed by Vitalik Buterin, the creator of Ethereum.

DAO
Decentralized Autonomous Organization. An investor-directed venture capital fund built on the Ethereum network that was hacked in June 2016. The hack stole about a third of the DAO’s funds and led to Ethereum being hard-forked the following month. The DAO is often cited as one of Ethereum’s biggest stumbles thus far.

Decentralised Autonomous Organizations can be thought of as corporations that run without any human intervention and surrender all forms of control to an incorruptible set of business rules.

dApp
Shorthand for decentralized application”

Dapp
A decentralised application (Dapp) is an application that is open source, operates autonomously, has its data stored on a blockchain, incentivised in the form of cryptographic tokens and operates on a protocol that shows proof of value.
Decentralized Application. This refers to an application that uses an Ethereum smart contract as it’s back-end code.

Dark Web
A portion of internet content existing on darknets, not indexed by search engines, that can only be accessed with specific software, configurations or authorizations.

Darknet
A peer-to-peer layer of the internet that can only be accessed with special software. It is known as Darknet because it often involves illegal marketplaces and illicit activity.

Date of Launch
Is a term used for when ICOs will put up their tokens for sale.

Dead Cat Bounce
A temporary recovery in prices after a huge decrease.

Decentralization
One of the key reasons cryptocurrency has been such a hit is because it has changed the way data like ledgers and applications are stored. Instead of relying on a central node like a server, blockchains, Bitcoins, decentralized applications, and all the data they contain are distributed between nodes. The greatest strength of decentralization is its resilience

Decentralized
Decentralization refers to the property of a system in which nodes or actors work in concert in a distributed fashion to achieve a global goal.

Decentralized Application
Applications that run without the control of a central authority (like a software company or government). Ethereum is the first and largest decentralized application platform.
A computer program that utilizes a blockchain for data storage, runs autonomously, is not controlled or operated from a single entity, is open source and has its use incentivized by the reward of fees or tokens.

Decentralized applications
Also known as dapps, decentralized applications take the concept of distributing blockchain ledgers and go a bit further

Decentralized Applications (dApps)
A type of application that runs on a decentralized network, avoiding a single point of failure.

Decentralized Autonomous Initial Coin Offerings (DAICO)
A method for decentralized funding of projects, combining ideas from Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs) and Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs), proposed by Vitalik Buterin, creator of Ethereum. It introduces a form of governance in the ICO process, allowing backers to vote for the return of their funds if certain conditions are met.

Decentralized Autonomous Organization
Refers to organizations that are run by an application (computer program) rather than direct human input. Control of this application is granted to everyone rather than a single central entity.

Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO)
An investor-funded and directed venture capital crowd-fund built on the Ethereum network that was hacked in June 2016 and subsequently shut down.

Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAO)
An organization that is run through rules encoded in smart contracts.

Decentralized Exchange
A peer-to-peer exchange that allows users to buy and sell cryptocurrency and other assets without the control or fees of a central authority. Unlike central services like CoinBase.

Decentralized Exchange (DEX)
A peer-to-peer exchange that allows users to buy and sell cryptocurrency and other assets without a central intermediary involved.

Decentralized Organization
A smart-contract based organization that uses automated rules to run without a central authority. Funding, voting, and more are all handled via platforms like Ethereum.

Decryption
The process of transforming data that has been rendered unreadable through encryption back to its unencrypted form.
Turning encrypted cipher text back into plain text.

Deflation
Reduction of the general level of prices in an economy. May also refer to deflationary monetary policy, such as Bitcoin, where there is a fixed supply of coins.
When the demand for a particular cryptocurrency decreases, bringing down the price of its economy.

Delegated Proof-of-Stake (dPOS)
A consensus mechanism where users can vote for delegates producing blocks on the blockchain, with votes proportional to their stake. It aims to increase efficiency and environmental friendliness of blockchain consensus protocols.

Depth Chart
A graph that plots the requests to buy (bids) and the requests to sell (asks) on a chart, based on limit orders. The chart shows the point at which the market is most likely to accept a transaction.
This graph plots the requests to buy (known as bids) and the requests to sell (known as asks) on a chart. Because you can put a limit order on your buy or sell transaction, the depth chart shows the crossover point at which the market is most likely to accept a transaction in a timely fashion. It also shows if there are any significant buy walls or sell walls in play.

Derivative
A contract deriving its value from the performance of an underlying asset, index, or interest rate.

Derivatives Market
A public market for derivatives, instruments such as futures contracts or options, which are derived from other forms of cryptocurrency assets.

Deterministic Wallet
A type of wallet that derives keys from a starting point called a seed. As long as you have this seed, you are able to backup and restore any wallet. *see Hierarchical Deterministic Wallet (HD Wallet).
This type of wallet is created by producing multiple keys from a seed. If you lose this wallet, your wallet key can be recovered from the seed. Plus, when you make transactions, instead of producing new keys each time, you use variations from the seed, which makes it more transferable and easier to store.

Difficulty
Difficulty is a measure of how hard it is to successfully mine a single block in a blockchain. Cryptocurrency miners are attempting to find cryptographic hashes for specific blocks of data, which becomes more difficult the longer a blockchain becomes. Difficulty continues to rise, making mining a more intensive process as time goes on.
When someone refers to difficulty in the cryptocurrency space, they are referring to the cost of mining in that moment in time. The more transactions that are trying to be confirmed at any single moment in time, divided by the total power of the nodes on the network at that time, defines the difficulty. The higher the difficulty, the greater the transaction fee – this is a fluid measurement that moves over time.
A relative measure of how difficult it is to discover a new block. In Bitcoin, the difficulty is adjusted periodically as a function of how much hashing power has been deployed by the network of miners.

Difficulty
A measurement of how difficult it is for a miner to solve the mathematical puzzle required to process a cryptocurrency block. The difficulty can change over time.

Digital Commodity
An intangible asset that is transferred electronically, and has a certain value.

Digital Currency
Another term for digital commodity
Digital currency, also known as digital money or electronic money or electronic currency, is a type of currency available only in digital form, allowing for instantaneous transactions and borderless transfer-of-ownership.
A digital currency that uses strong computer code (cryptography) and a decentralized system to allow for transactions without using middlemen like banks. AKA cryptocurrency.

Digital Identity
Digital representations and storage of personal information such as name, address, social security number, and more; on the blockchain, digital identity can be decentralized and used for identity verification in a secure manner.
Personal information like name, address, social security number, and more that are bundled and stored digitally. For blockchain digital identity can be stored decentralized.

Digital Signature
A digital code generated by public key encryption that is attached to an electronically transmitted document to verify its contents and the sender’s identity.
Used to confirm that a document being transmitted electronically is authentic. They generally appear as a code generated by a public key encryption.

Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)
A directed acyclic graph or DAG is a structure that is built out in one single direction and in such a way that it never repeats.

Distributed
A system that is not controlled and cannot be changed by a central authority like a person, company, or government. Most cryptocurrencies are decentralized systems.

Distributed Consensus
Collective agreement by various computers in a network enabling it to work in a decentralized manner without a central authority.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack
A cyber-attack in which the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable, disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet, by overloading the system with requests so that legitimate requests cannot be served.

Distributed Ledger
A ledger that is stored in multiple locations so that any entries can be accessed and checked by multiple parties. In cryptocurrency, this refers to the blockchain being held on multiple nodes on the network, all of which are checked simultaneously.

Distributed Ledger
A type of computer database that is stored on many private computers at the same time, instead of central company servers. Blockchains are also known as distributed ledgers.
Distribution involves decentralizing data between multiple nodes. A distributed ledger is a blockchain ledger that is redundantly shared between peers so there are multiple valid copies to prevent data loss. Centralized ledgers are the exact opposite
Distributed ledgers are ledgers in which data is stored across a network of decentralized nodes. A distributed ledger does not necessarily involve a cryptocurrency and may be permissioned and private.

Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)
The technology underlying distributed ledgers. This term is most often discussed in the context of enterprise use cases around adoption of distributed ledger technology.

Distributed Network
A type of network where processing power and data are spread over the nodes without a centralized data center or authority.
What a distributed ledger is to cryptocurrency a distributed network is to decentralized applications. As opposed to using a single source like a server to run a dapp, a distributed network (e.g., the Ethereum Virtual Machine) shares the processing work and stored data between its nodes.

Dolphin
A person who owns a moderate quantity of cryptocurrency. This person does not qualify to be a whale, but has evolved from being a fish/minnow.

Dominance
Also known as BTC Dominance for Bitcoin Dominance, it is an index that compares the market capitalization of Bitcoin with the overall market cap of all other cryptocurrencies in existence.

Double Spend
A problem in which somebody fraudulently sends digital money to two different receivers (even though they only have enough for one transaction). Bitcoin solves this issue.
This occurs when someone tries to send a cryptocurrency to two different wallets or locations at the same time.

Double Spending
A situation where a sum of money is (illegitimately) spent more than once.
Double spending occurs when a sum of money is spent more than once.

Dump
The term used to describe selling all (or a lot) of your cryptocurrency.
To sell off all your coins.

Dumping
The action of collective market sell-offs, creating downward price movement.
When a lot of people dump at once, causing a sharp downward movement in a cryptocurrency’s price.

Dust Transactions
Minuscule transactions that flood and slow the network, usually deliberately created by people looking to disrupt it.
Sometimes people will look to slow the network by deliberately flooding it with minor transactions that are incredibly small. These minuscule amounts are referred to as a dust transaction.

DYOR
Acronym for do your own research”.
Age old adage

EEA
Enterprise Ethereum Alliance. A coalition of startups and corporations trying to figure out the best way to use this dang thing.

ELI5
Stands for Explain Like I’m 5”, an explanation so simple that even a five-year-old can understand it.

Emission
Emission, also known as Emission Curve, Emission Rate, and Emission Schedule, is the speed at which new coins are created and released.

Encryption
Converting plain text into unintelligible text with the use of a cipher.
The use of mathematics and computer code (cryptography) to protect sensitive data like digital wallets, private keys, and personal information from unauthorized access.

Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA)
A group of Ethereum core developers, startups, and large companies working together to commercialize and use Ethereum for different business applications.

Equity Tokens
A token that represents an ownership interest in a company. Equity tokens work similar to traditional stocks and may include voting rights. Equity tokens are also used to represent ownership rights in company debt. They are designed to improve transparency and liquidity (the ability to buy and sell the equity when investors need it).

ERC
Stands for Ethereum request for comments” and is a summation of proposed improvements to the Ethereum system.

ERC-20
The standard to which each Ethereum token complies. It defines the way that each token behaves so that transactions are predictable. Other cryptocurrencies also use the ERC-20 standard, piggybacking on the Ethereum network in the process.
A token standard for Ethereum, used for smart contracts implementing tokens. It is a common list of rules defining interactions between tokens, including transfer between addresses and data access.

ERC-721
A token standard for non-fungible Ethereum tokens. An Ethereum Improvement Proposal introduced in 2017, it enables smart contracts to operate as tradeable tokens similar to ERC-20 tokens.

Escrow
An escrow is a contractual arrangement in which a third party receives and disburses money or documents for the primary transacting parties, with the disbursement dependent on conditions agreed to by the transacting parties. This is possible to be automated using smart contracts on the blockchain.
When an intermediary is used to hold funds during a transaction, those funds are being held in escrow. This is usually a third party between the entity sending and the one receiving.

ETH
ETH is the short ticker symbol for Ethereum, which is often used on exchanges and other financial platforms. Ethereum is a platform for creating and running smart contracts.

Ether
The digital currency of the Ethereum network. Ether is used to pay the transaction and processing fees of Ethereum decentralized applications and smart contracts.
Often mistakenly called Ethereum, Ether is the cryptocurrency that powers the EVM, commonly called Ethereum. Ethereum is used to reward blockchain mining and dapp nodes for participating in the work of the EVM.
The form of payment used in the operation of the distribution application platform, Ethereum, in order to incentivize machines into executing the requested operations.

Ethereum
A platform for creating and running smart contracts. These are programmable applications that run exactly as promised – without downtime, censorship, or interference.
Ethereum is a decentralized computer network, also known as the Ethereum Virtual Machine (or EVM), that operates dapps and is fueled by the cryptocurrency Ether.
One of the top three cryptocurrencies in the world based on its market capitalization. Despite being open source and based on blockchain technology, it differs from bitcoin in two key ways: it allows developers to create dApps and also write smart contracts.

Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP)
Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIPs) describe standards for the Ethereum platform, including core protocol specifications, client APIs, and contract standards.

Ethereum Virtual Machine
A virtual machine, effectively sitting in the cloud, that is Turing complete and is used by all nodes on the network during blockchain confirmations. It allows those on the node to execute random EVM Byte Code, which is part of the Ethereum Protocol.

Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)
A Turing-complete virtual machine that enables execution of code exactly as intended; it is the runtime environment for every smart contract. Every Ethereum node runs on the EVM to maintain consensus across the blockchain.

EVM
The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is a Turing complete virtual machine that allows anyone to execute arbitrary EVM Byte Code. Every Ethereum node runs on the EVM to maintain consensus across the blockchain.

Exchange
A system on which assets like cryptocurrencies can be bought, sold, and stored. Exchanges can be centralized where a company controls them; or decentralized (peer-to-peer).
The platform through which cryptocurrencies are exchanged with each other, with fiat currencies and between entities. Exchanges can vary widely in the currency conversions they enable and their fee structures.
Cryptocurrency exchanges (sometimes called digital currency exchanges) are businesses that allow customers to trade cryptocurrencies for fiat money or other cryptocurrencies.

Exchange Traded Fund (ETF)
A security that tracks a basket of assets such as stocks, bonds, and cryptocurrencies but can be traded like a single stock. Bought and sold on traditional stock exchanges.

FA
Acronym for fundamental analysis”.

Faucet
A cryptocurrency reward system usually on a website or app, that rewards users for completing certain tasks. It is mostly a technique used when first launching an altcoin to interest people in the coin.
If you find a website that offers to give you free cryptocurrency for connecting with them, it is termed a faucet. The majority of these are scams.
A service or website that pay you in cryptocurrencies in exchange for playing games or doing certain tasks.

Fiat
Refers to money recognized as legal tender by governments, such as the US dollar, British pound, Euro and Australian dollar.
Fiat currency is legal tender” backed by a central government, such as the Federal Reserve, and with its own banking system, such as fractional reserve banking. It can take the form of physical cash, or it can be represented electronically, such as with bank credit.
A term used to describe traditional government-issued and backed currencies like dollars, Euros, and Yen. Not backed by physical commodities but by legal tender laws.

Fiat currency
Fiat currency (e.g., dollars, euros, pounds, yen) is the form of money that we use every day, and it derives value from the government that issued the currency. Cryptocurrency isn’t fiat currency because it isn’t given value by a central authority.

Fiat-Pegged Cryptocurrency
Also known as pegged cryptocurrency”, it is a coin, token, or asset issued on a blockchain that is linked to a government- or bank-issued currency. Each pegged cryptocurrency is guaranteed to have a specific cash value in reserves at all times.

Finney, Szabo

More somewhat common denominations of ether.

Fish
A fish, or minnow, is someone who holds insignificant amounts of cryptocurrencies, often at the mercy of whales who move the market up and down. *see Dolphin and Whale.

Flippening
A situation hoped for by Ethereum fans, where the total market cap of Ethereum surpasses the total market cap of Bitcoin.

Flippening
A potential future event, hoped for by Ethereum fans, where the total market cap of Ethereum surpasses the total market cap of Bitcoin – making Ethereum the most valuable.

Flipping
An investment strategy (mostly popularized by real estate investing) where you buy something with the goal of reselling for a profit later, usually in a short period of time. In the context of ICOs, flipping refers to the strategy of investing in tokens before they are listed on exchanges, then quickly reselling them for a profit when they start trading on exchanges in the secondary market.

FOMO
An acronym that stands for ‘fear of missing out’ and in the context of investing, refers to the feeling of apprehension for missing out on a potentially profitable investment opportunity and regretting it later. *see JOMO.
Fear Of Missing Out. The overwhelming sensation that you need to get on the train when the price of something starts to skyrocket.
Internet culture term that stands for Fear of Missing Out. Describes actions taken by investors based on emotions and the fear of not benefitting from a price rise or drop.
Fear of missing out. A feeling in which you want to get onboard a skyrocketing price rally.

Fork
A situation where a blockchain splits into two separate chains. Forks generally happen in the crypto-world when new ‘governance rules’ are built into the blockchain’s code.
Forks are points at which an existing blockchain splits into two or more different blockchains. Up to the point of forking, both blockchains contain the same data, but after that point are different. Forks can be both hard (i.e., not backwards compatible) and soft (i.e., backwards compatible), and can occur due to a change in consensus or a change in blockchain protocol (i.e., underlying code).
When a new version of a blockchain is created, resulting in two versions of the blockchain running side-by-side, it is termed a fork. As a single blockchain forks into two, they will both run on the same network. Forks are categorized into two categories: soft or hard.
Forks create an alternate version of the blockchain, leaving two blockchains to run simultaneously on different parts of the network.

Fork (Blockchain)
Forks, or chain splits, create an alternate version of the blockchain, leaving two blockchains to run simultaneously. An example is Ethereum and Ethereum Classic, which was forked after the DAO hack.

Fork (Software)
A software fork, also known as a project fork, is when developers take the technology (source code) from one existing software project and modify it to create a new project. An example is Litecoin, which was a software fork of Bitcoin.

Frictionless
If there is no transaction cost and no restraints on trading, then the system is considered frictionless.

Frontier, Homestead, Metropolis, Serenity

The four planned stages of the Ethereum development roadmap. We are currently in the Homestead phase. The Metropolis update is likely to be available sometime in the next year.

FUD
Acronym for fear, uncertainty and doubt”.
An acronym that stands for fear, uncertainty and doubt”. It is a strategy to influence perception of certain cryptocurrencies or the cryptocurrency market in general by spreading negative, misleading or false information. *see FUDster.
Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt. Baseless negativity spread intentionally by someone that wants the price of something to drop.
Internet culture term that stands for Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt. It means negative information that is being purposefully spread about an asset to make people sell.

FUDster
A person who spreads FUD based on facts or gut feelings.
Someone that is spreading FUD.

Full Node
Some nodes download a blockchain’s entire history in order to enforce its rules completely. As they fully enforce the rules, they are considered a full node.

Fundamental Analysis
A method through which you can attach value to a coin by looking at similar economic and financial factors and researching the underlying motives of the creators and market opinion.

Fundamental Analysis (FA)
A method in which you research the underlying value of an asset by looking at the technology, team, growth prospects and other indicators. Some people perform fundamental analysis as part of an investment strategy called value investing”.

Futures
Contracts to buy assets (like cryptocurrencies and stocks) with an agreement for future delivery on a regulated stock exchange. Used to speculate on the future price of an asset.
A futures contract is a standardized legal agreement to buy or sell a particular commodity or asset at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future. They are different from forward contracts, which can be customized for each trade and can be conducted over-the-counter, instead of being traded on an exchange.

Futures Contract
This is a pre-approved contract between two entities to fulfill a transaction when the value of cryptocurrency hits a certain price. It’s different than a limit order in that the buyer and seller are already nominated and bound. A future contract becomes relevant when a buyer wants to go short and a seller wants to go long on the asset.

Gains
Gains refer to an increase in value or profit.

Gas
A term used on the Ethereum platform that refers to a unit of measuring the computational effort of conducting transactions or smart contracts, or launch dApps in the Ethereum network. It is the fuel” of the Ethereum network. *see Gas Limit and Gas Price.
A measurement of how much processing is required by the ethereum network to process a transaction. Simple transactions, like sending ether to another address, typically do not require much gas. More complex transactions, like deploying a smart contract, require more gas.
Gas a is measurement given to an operation in the Ethereum network that relates to the computational power required to complete it. That measurement relates to the fee offered to miners who process that transaction. Other operations have a small cost of 3 to 10 gas, but a full transaction costs 21,000 gas.
To run decentralized applications and smart contracts on the Ethereum network, apps calculate their usage using an internal pricing unit called Gas. Actual fees are then paid in Ether.

Gas Limit
A term used on the Ethereum platform that refers to the maximum amount of gas the user is willing to spend on a transaction.
When users make a transaction on the Ethereum network, they set their gas limit, which is the most they are willing to pay as a fee for that transaction. If the transaction is going to cost more gas than what is offered, the transaction will not go through. If it costs less, the difference will be refunded.

Gas Price
A term used on the Ethereum platform that refers to the price you are willing to pay for a transaction. Setting a higher gas price will incentivize miners to prioritize that transaction over others.
The amount of ether to be spent for each gas unit on a transaction. The initiator of a transaction chooses and pays the gas price of the transaction. Transactions with higher gas prices are prioritized by the network.

Genesis Block
A blockchain is a string of blocks that are linked together in order. Each block is a collection of bundled transactions. The genesis block is the very first block of a blockchain.
The first block of data that is processed and validated to form a new blockchain, often referred to as block 0 or block 1.

Going long
A margin trade that profits if the price increases.

Going short
A margin trade that profits if the price decreases.

Gold-Backed Cryptocurrency
A coin or token issued that represents a value of gold; for example, one physical gram of gold equals to one coin. The gram of gold is stored in a safe and can be traded with other coin holders.

Graphical Processing Unit (GPU)
More commonly known as a graphics card, it is a computer chip that creates 3D images on computers, but has turned out to be efficient for mining cryptocurrencies.

Group Mining
Another term used to describe a Mining Pool.

Gwei
The denomination used in defining the cost of gas in transactions involving Ether.
Another denomination of ether. Gas prices are most often measured in Gwei. 1 Ether = 1000000000 Gwei. (109)

Hacking
Hacking is the process of using a computer to manipulate another computer or computer system in an unauthorized fashion.

Halving
An event in which the total rewarded bitcoins per confirmed block halves, happening every 210,000 blocks mined.
Every time miners approve transactions on the bitcoin blockchain, they earn bitcoin. As each block on the blockchain fills up with transactions, a certain amount of bitcoin enter the marketplace. However, the number of bitcoin that will ever be created is finite, locked at 21 million. In order to ensure this cap is kept, the amount of bitcoin earned by miners for filling one block is halved at the completion of that block. This is called halving. For the record, by the year 2140, all 21 million bitcoin will be in circulation.
It is the 50% reduction in block reward after a certain number of blocks are mined. In Bitcoin, the halving happens after every 210,000 blocks.
Bitcoin’s supply of newly generated coins is cut in half about every four years to keep it scarce. This 50% cut if known as the halving. The next halving will happen around 2020.

Hard Cap
The maximum amount that an ICO will raise. If a hard cap is reached, no more funds will be collected. *see Soft Cap.
During an ICO, the creator can set a hard cap. This is the maximum amount it planned to raise, and it will therefore stop offering coins at this figure.

Hard Fork
A type of fork that renders previously invalid transactions valid, and vice versa. This type of fork requires all nodes and users to upgrade to the latest version of the protocol software.
A change to the rules of a cryptocurrency that creates two separate versions of the blockchain. Hard forks are changes that are not backward compatible with previous rules.
A fork in the blockchain that converts transactions previously labeled invalid to valid, and vice versa. For this fork to work, all nodes on the network must upgrade to the newest protocol.

Hard Fork (Blockchain)
A type of protocol change that validates all previously invalid transactions, and invalidates all previously valid transactions. This type of fork requires all nodes and users to upgrade to the latest version of the forked protocol software. In a hard fork, a single cryptocurrency permanently splits into two, resulting in one blockchain that follows the old protocol and the other that follows the newest protocol. Some examples are Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash, or Ethereum and Ethereum Classic. *see Soft Fork.

Hardware Wallet
A physical device, similar to a USB stick, that stores cryptocurrency in its encrypted form. It’s considered the most secure way to hold cryptocurrency.

Hardware Wallet
A physical storage device fo cryptocurrencies that uses special technologies to protect the assets on it. Examples of hardware wallets are the products Ledger Nano S and Trezor.
A device that can securely store crypto-currency. Hardware wallets are often regarded as the most secure way to hold crypto-currency.

Hash
The act of performing a hash function on input data of arbitrary size, with an output of fixed length that looks random and from which no data can be recovered without a cipher. An important property of a hash is that the output of hashing a particular document will always be the same when using the same algorithm.
A digital fingerprint of a fixed size produced by a hashing algorithm by processing data of any arbitrary size (numbers, alphabets, media files).

Hash Function
Any function used to map data of arbitrary size to data of a fixed size. *see Cryptographic Hash Function.
Cryptographic computer code works like a one-way street. It’s easy to decipher 250 + 250 = ? but much harder to find the correct answer (out of many) for ? + ? = 500.

Hash Power / Hash Rate
A unit of measurement for the amount of computing power being consumed by the network to continuously operate. The Hash Rate of a computer may be measured in kH/s, MH/s, GH/s, TH/s, PH/s or EH/s depending on the hashes per second being produced.

Hash Rate
Hash Rate or Hash Power is the measuring unit of the power Bitcoin network is consuming to be continuously functional.
Measurement of performance that reveals how many hashes per second your computer is capable of producing. Each hash is an attempt to find a block by creating a unique block candidate and testing it against the network.

Hashing Power
The hash rate of a computer, measured in kH/s, MH/s, GH/s, TH/s, PH/s or EH/s depending on the hashes per second being produced. 1,000 kH/s = 1 MH/s, 1,000 MH/s = 1 GH/s and so forth.

HD Wallet
Wallets which generate the hierarchical tree-like structure of numerous public and private keys starting from the root seed key.

Hidden Cap
Hidden cap is an unknown limit to the amount of money a team elects to receive from investors in its Initial Coin Offering (ICO). The purpose of a hidden cap is to even the playing field by letting smaller investors put in money, without the large investors forming an accurate understanding of the total cap and adjusting their investment as a result.

Hierarchical Deterministic Wallet (HD Wallet)
A wallet that uses Hierarchical Deterministic (HD) protocol to support the generation of crypto-wallets from a single master seed using 12 mnemonic phrases. *see Deterministic Wallet.

HODL
Acronym for hold on for dear life”.
Long ago, someone on a bitcoin forum got drunk and made a post with this typo in the place of ‘hold’. A meme was born.
It is a meme term which is basically means hold or Hold on for dear life. It means to hold onto the cryptocurrency that you have invested and ignore the sentiments.
A type of passive investment strategy where you hold an investment for a long period of time, regardless of any changes in the price or markets. The term first became famous due to a typo made in a bitcoin forum, and the term is now commonly expanded to stand for Hold On for Dear Life”.

Hosted Wallet
Is a wallet managed by a third-party service.

Hot Storage
The online safekeeping of private keys which allow for access to cryptocurrency funds. Typically this is done through open-source online wallets and digital asset exchanges.

Hybrid PoW/PoS
A hybrid PoW/PoS allows for both Proof-of-Stake and Proof-of-Work as consensus distribution algorithms on the network. This approach aims to bring together the security of PoW consensus and the governance and energy efficiency of PoS.

Hyperledger (Hyperledger Foundation)
Hyperledger is an umbrella project of open source blockchains and blockchain-related tools started by the Linux Foundation in 2015 to support the collaborative development of blockchain-based distributed ledgers.

ICO
Initial Coin Offering of new crypto coins or tokens offered to the general public in return for their fixed priced investments. It is a new way of decentralized crowdfunding.
When a new cryptocurrency venture begins it can make an initial coin offering (ICO), similar to an initial public offering (IPO). Instead of company shares being sold to early investors, ICOs involve the sale of cryptocurrencies to early backers of the project. Companies offering ICOs have to surpass a minimum earning threshold before the ICO or all money is returned to backers and the project fails.

Immutable
A property that defines the inability to be changed, especially over time.

Inflation
A general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value of money.

Initial Bounty Offering (IBO)
An Initial Bounty Offering or IBO is the limited-time process by which a new cryptocurrency is made public and distributed to people who invest time and skill into earn rewards in the new cryptocurrency, such as doing translation or marketing. Unlike an Initial Coin Offering where you can buy coins, an IBO requires more mental commitment from the receiver.

Initial Coin Offering (ICO)
A type of crowdfunding, or crowdsale, using cryptocurrencies as a means of raising capital for early-stage companies. It has come under fire due to the occurrence of scams and market manipulators.
In order to raise funds, the creator of a cryptocurrency will put an initial batch of its coins up for purchase. This is an initial coin offering.
A public, crowdfunded sale of cryptocurrency tokens to raise money for a project. Typically, company-specific tokens are offered in exchange for Bitcoin and Ethereum.

Initial Token Offering (ITO)
Similar to ICOs, but the focus is on the offering of tokens with proven (or unproven) intrinsic utility in the form of software or usage in an ecosystem.

Instamine
A period in time, shortly after launch, when a large portion of total mineable coins or tokens are mined in a compressed time frame, and may be unevenly and quickly distributed to investors.

Intermediary
For cryptocurrencies, an intermediary is a traditional middleman like a bank. It’s a central third party that no longer is required in a decentralized Blockchain system.

Intermediary / Middleman
An intermediary, or middleman, is a person or entity that acts as the go-between different parties to bring about agreements or carry out directives.

JOMO
Acronym for joy of missing out”.
The opposite state of FOMO, JOMO stands for Joy of Missing Out”. Most often used by no-coiners who declare their happiness that they are not involved in cryptocurrencies, usually when prices are declining or a scam ICO is revealed.

Know Your Customer (KYC)
Laws and regulations that require banks and other financial institutions to keep and report many details of their customers’ personal information and transactions.

KYC
Acronym for Know Your Customer”, this process refers to a project’s or financial institution’s obligations to verify the identity of a customer in line with global anti-money laundering laws.

LAMBO
Shorthand for Lamborghini, which is how someone might refer to themselves if they are getting rich quickly. The idea being there is so much money coming in that they are going to go buy an exotic car.

Ledger
A record of financial transactions. A ledger cannot be changed, it can only be appended with new transactions.
A ledger is usually a record of a specific type of transaction such as money, purchases, etc. Ledgers in the cryptocurrency world are also known as blockchains, which contain complete records of the history of a cryptocurrency’s use. In this case, the ledgers are not physical objects—ledgers are digital lists of cryptographically hashed data validated through group consensus.
A store of records that can only be appended (added to). It is immutable (unchangeable after the fact). Blockchains use decentralized ledgers as their core technology.

Ledger Nano S
A popular hardware wallet, designed and sold by the French company Ledger Wallet. The company offers different products, including Ledger Nano S and Ledger Blue.

Ledger Nano S / Trezor
Two of the most popular hardware wallet models.

Leverage
A loan offered by a broker on an exchange during margin trading to increase the availability of funds in trades.

Lightning Network
A peer-to-peer system for cryptocurrency micropayments that is focused on low latency, instant payments. They’re typically low cost, scalable and can work across chains, and transactions can be public or private.
The Lightning Network is a second layer payment protocol that operates on top of a blockchain. Theoretically, it will enable fast, scalable transactions between and across participating nodes, and has been touted as a solution to the Bitcoin scalability problem.
A proposed change to Bitcoin’s blockchain that’s designed to fascilitate faster transactions and better scaling. Involves bi-directional payment channels and other changes.

Limit Order (Limit Buy/Limit Sell)
Buy/Sell orders placed by traders to buy or sell a crypto-currency when the price meets their target amount.

Limit Order/Limit Buy/Limit Sell
If you set a rule whereby a cryptocurrency is sold or bought when at a certain price, you are setting a limit order. When traders place an order for a buy or sell, the system looks for these limit orders.
Orders placed by traders to buy or sell a crypto-currency when the price meets a certain amount. They can be thought of as ‘for-sale’ signs. These orders are what are bought and sold against when traders place market orders.

Liquidity
The liquidity of a cryptocurrency is defined by how easily it can be bought and sold without impacting the overall market price.

Litecoin
Litecoin is an altcoin that is a fork of Bitcoin, and it was launched in 2011. Litecoin is nearly identical to Bitcoin, but it differs in several key ways
An offshoot of Bitcoin with very similar features. However, this cryptocurrency is designed for very cheap and fast transaction. Has the goal to become digital money.

Locktime
If a transaction request comes with a rule delaying when it can be processed to a certain time or certain block on the blockchain, that is referred to as the locktime.

Long
A situation where you buy a cryptocurrency with the expectation of selling it at a higher price for profit later.
When you intend to take a large amount of cryptocurrency and stockpile it with the anticipation that it will grow in value, you are going long (or taking a long position).

LTC
LTC is the short ticker symbol for Litecoin, which is often used on exchanges and other financial platforms. Litecoin is an offshoot of Bitcoin with a focus on cheap transactions.

MACD
Moving Average Convergence Divergence. A trend indicator that shows the relationship between two moving averages of prices.

Mainnet
An independent blockchain running its own network with its own technology and protocol. It is a live blockchain where its own cryptocurrencies or tokens are in use, as compared to a testnet or projects running on top of other popular networks such as Ethereum.

Margin Bear Position
The position you are taking if you are going short” on margin. * Margin Bull Position

Margin Bear Position
This is the position you are taking if you are going short”.

Margin Bull Position
This is the position you are taking if you are going long”.

Margin Call
When an investor’s account value falls below the margin maintenance amount. The broker will then demand that the investor deposit additional money or securities to meet the minimum required maintenance amount to continue trading.

Margin trading
The act of ‘magnifying’ the intensity of your trades by risking your existing coins. (NOTE: Very risky, only for experienced traders and only on certain exchanges even then)
This is some Refers to the trading practice where existing assets are used as collateral for short-term loans. The loans are then used in risky trades to magnify the gain or loss of the trade.text inside of a div block.
A practice where a trader uses borrowed funds from a broker to trade a cryptocurrency, which forms the collateral for the loan from the broker. It can be relatively risky for inexperienced traders who may receive a margin call if the market moves in the opposite direction of their trades.
A risky strategy used by experienced traders where they risk their existing coins to magnify the intensity of their trades. This allows them to buy more than they can afford using leverage provided by an exchange.

Market
An area or arena, online or offline, in which commercial dealings are conducted. Usually referred to as the crypto market”, which refers to the cumulative cryptocurrencies and projects operating within the industry.

Market Capitalization
The total value of an asset, calculated by multiplying the total number of outstanding shares (or coins) and the price per share (or coin). Represents total size and popularity.
This is defined as the total number of coins in supply multiplied by the price. Cap = supply x price.

Market Capitalization / Market Cap / MCAP
Total capitalization of a cryptocurrency’s price. It is one of the ways to rank the relative size of a cryptocurrency.

Market Order
As opposed to a limit order, a market order does not wait until a certain price to buy or sell; it trades wherever the price is at the time the transaction order is made.

Market Order / Market Buy / Market Sell
A purchase or sale of a cryptocurrency on an exchange at the current best available price. Market orders are filled as buyers and sellers are willing to trade. This is in contrast with limit orders at which a cryptocurrency is sold only at a specified price.
A simple purchase or sale on an exchange at the current price. Market buys purchase the cheapest ETH available on the order book, and market sells fill the most expensive buy order on the books.

Masternodes
Masternodes are a server maintained by its owner, somewhat like full nodes, but with additional functionalities such as anonymizing transactions, clearing transactions, and participating in governance and voting. It was initially popularized by Dash to reward owners of these servers for maintaining a service for the blockchain.

Max Supply
The best approximation of the maximum amount of coins that will ever exist in the lifetime of the cryptocurrency. *see Circulating Supply and Total Supply.

MCAP
Acronym for market capitalization”.

Merkle Tree
A tree structure in cryptography, in which every leaf node is labelled with the hash of a data block and every non-leaf node is labelled with the cryptographic hash of the labels of its child nodes. Hash trees allow efficient and secure verification of the contents of blockchains, as each change propagates upwards so verification can be done by simply looking at the top hash.

MEW
MyEtherWallet. A free site that can generate ethereum software wallets for you.

MicroBitcoin (uBTC)
One millionth of a bitcoin or 0.000001 of a bitcoin. Often confused as a fork of Bitcoin.

Microtransaction
A business model where very small payments can be made in exchange for digital goods and services. For example, paying a tiny fee for every page of an ebook you read.

Middleman
For cryptocurrencies, a middleman is a traditional intermediary like a bank. It’s a central third party that no longer is required in a decentralized Blockchain system.
Some cryptocurrencies have a system through which miners can be rewarded with newly-created cryptocurrencies for creating blocks through contributing their hash power. Cryptocurrencies with this ability to generate new cryptocurrencies through the process of confirmation is said to be mineable.

Miner
An important participant in the blockchain network, who bundles transactions and gets paid in new coins and transaction fees in return for helping to run the system.

Miners
Contributors to a blockchain taking part in the process of mining. They can be professional miners or organizations with large-scale operations, or hobbyists who set up mining rigs at home or in the office.

Mining
The term, somewhat confusingly, given to the process of verifying transactions on a blockchain. In the process of solving the encryption challenges, the person donating the computer power is granted new fractions of the cryptocurrency.
The process of trying to ‘solve’ the next block. It requires obscene amounts of computer processing power to do effectively, but is rewarded with ether.
Mining is the act of validating blockchain transactions. The necessity of validation warrants an incentive for the miners, usually in the form of coins. In this cryptocurrency boom, mining can be a lucrative business when done properly. By choosing the most efficient and suitable hardware and mining target, mining can produce a stable form of passive income.

Mining Contract
Another term for cloud mining, where users can rent or invest in mining capacity online.
An investment in mining hardware whereby you rent out the hashing power of mining hardware for a certain amount of time. The renter does not pay for the hardware or the maintenance and electricity required to run it.

Mining Pool
A group of people or organizations who come together to pool and share their computer resources for cryptocurrency mining. They then also split the rewards.
If a number of miners combine their computing power together to try and help complete the transactions required to start a new block in the blockchain, they are in a mining pool. The rewards are spread proportionately between those in the mining pool based on the amount of power they contributed. The idea is that being in a mining pool allows for better chances of successful hashing and therefore getting enough cryptocurrency reward to produce an income.
A setup where multiple miners combine their computing power to gain economies of scale and competitiveness in finding the next block on a blockchain. Rewards are split according to different agreements, depending on the mining pool. Another term for this is Group Mining.

Mining Reward
The reward resulting from contributing computing resources to process transactions. Mining rewards are usually a mix of newly-minted coins and transaction fees.
The payment resulting from volunteering computer resources to process cryptocurrency transactions. Mining rewards are often a mix of new coins and transaction fees.

Mining Rig
A computer being used for mining. A mining rig could be a dedicated piece of hardware for mining, or a computer with spare capacity that can be used for other tasks, only mining part time.
A computer especially designed for processing proof-of-work blockchains, like Ethereum. They often consist of multiple high-end graphic processors (GPUs) to maximize their processing power.

Minnow
Another term used to describe Fish.

Mixing Service
Also known as Tumbler, it is a service to improve the privacy and anonymity of cryptocurrency transactions by mixing potentially identifiable or tainted” cryptocurrencies with other unrelated transactions, making it harder to track what the cryptocurrency was used for and who it belongs to.

Mnemonic Phrase
A mnemonic phrase (also known as mnemonic seed, or seed phrase) is a list of words used in sequence to access or restore your cryptocurrency assets. It should be kept secret from everyone else. It is a standard in most HD wallets.

Mnemonics
Mnemonics are memory aids with a system such as letters or associations that help in recall. *see Mnemonic Phrase.

Monero
Monero is another altcoin, and was specifically designed for anonymity. Monero transactions can’t be traced, which has made it a popular cryptocurrency among cybercriminals and crypto mining malware coders.
A secure, private, and untraceable cryptocurrency. Monero is focused on being anonymous internet money, hiding your accounts and transactions from anybody but you.

Money Services Business
A legal term used to represent an entity that transfers or converts money.

Money Transmitter/Money Transfer License
In the legal code of the United States, a money transmitter or money transfer service is a business entity that provides money transfer services or payment instruments, whether it is real currency, cryptocurrency, or any other value. Money Transmitters in the US are part of a larger group of entities called money service businesses or MSBs.

Moon
A term used to describe a major price movement upwards. For example, Ripple is mooning.
A situation where there is a continuous upward movement in the price of a cryptocurrency. Often used in communities to question when a cryptocurrency will experience such a phenomenon, saying

Moon / Mooning
Refers to a cryptocurrencies price shooting up to astronomical levels. A popular internet slang term used to describes the positive past or future performance of an asset.

Mooning
In the crypto-world, this does not mean exposing your buttocks. It is referring to a price going up astronomical levels.

Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD)
A technical analysis method, it is a trend-following momentum indicator that shows the relationship between two price moving averages. The calculation is done by subtracting the 26-day exponential moving average (EMA) from the 12-day EMA.
A part of the technical analysis of a cryptocurrency’s value, this tracks the momentum of price change to try and forecast into the future.

MSB
Acronym for money services business”.

Mt. Gox
Mtgox or Mt. Gox was one of the first websites where users could take part in fiat-to-bitcoin exchange (and vice versa). In 2014, Mt. Gox was shut down after about 850,000 bitcoin was declared lost or stolen. Mt. Gox was created in 2006 by Jed McCaleb who named it after Magic

Multi Signature (MultiSig)
Some cryptocurrency wallets and addresses are protected by multiple keys. Several people are required to approve (sign) transactions before they can take place.

Multipool Mining
If a miner moves from one cryptocurrency blockchain to another depending on the profitability provided by the network at that moment in time, they are engaging in multipool mining.

Multi-Signature
Multi-signature addresses provide an added layer of security by requiring more than one key to authorize a transaction.

Multi-Signature (Multi-Sig) Wallets
If, in order for a transaction to go through, more than one user needs to provide their unique code, then it is multi-signature. This system is set up at the creation of the account and is considered less susceptible to theft.

Network
A network refers to all the nodes committed to helping the operation of a blockchain at any given moment in time.

No-coiner
A no-coiner is someone who has no cryptocurrency in his or her investment portfolio and firmly believes that cryptocurrency in general will fail.

Node
A participant in a cryptocurrency network that provides a copy of the entire blockchain to the network. All miners host a node, but not all nodes have to mine cryptocurrency.

Nonce
When a miner hashes a transaction, a random number is generated, called a nonce. The parameters from which that number is chosen change based on the difficulty of the transaction.

Non-custodial
Usually referring to the storage of keys, in relation to wallets or exchanges, a non-custodial setup is one in which private keys are held by the user directly. *see Custodial.

Not Mineable
Some cryptocurrencies are generated only through other mechanisms, such as annual inflation through staking. These cryptocurrencies are said to be not mineable.

OCO
Acronym for one cancels the other order”.

Off-Ledger Currency
A digital currency that is created (minted) outside of the blockchain ledger but used on the blockchain ledger. Example

Offline Storage
The act of storing cryptocurrencies in devices or systems not connected to the internet. *see Online Storage.
Cryptocurrency wallets can be stored on devices and systems that are connected to the internet or not. Offline storage is the latter case, providing additional protection from hacking.

One Cancels the Other Order
When two orders for cryptocurrency are placed simultaneously with a rule in place whereby if one is accepted, the other is cancelled.

One Cancels The Other Order (OCO)
A situation where two orders for cryptocurrency are placed simultaneously, with a rule in place to enforce that if one is accepted, the other is cancelled.

On-Ledger Currency
A digital currency that is both created (minted) on the blockchain ledger and also used on the blockchain ledger. Most cryptocurrencies (like Bitcoin) are on-ledger currencies.

Online Storage
The act of storing cryptocurrencies in devices or systems connected to the internet. Online storage offers more convenience but also increased risk of theft. *see Offline Storage.
Cryptocurrency wallets can be stored on devices and systems that are connected to the internet or not. Online storage is the former case, offers more convenience but also increased risk.

Open Source
Collaborative and open software development approach that encourages experimentation and sharing. Project computer code is offered to others to work with and modify.
Open-source software is a type of software released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose. It is also a philosophy, with participants believing in the free and open sharing of information in pursuit of the greater common good.

Open/Close
The price at which a cryptocurrency opens at a time period, for example at the start of the day; the price at which a cryptocurrency closes at a time period, for example at the end of the day. In general, these terms were more useful in traditional financial markets as there are fixed hours of the day in which trading occurs.

Option
A contract giving the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset or instrument at a specified strike price. There are American and European options, the former of which may be exercised at any time before expiration, and the latter exercised only at the expiration date.

Options Market
A public market for options, giving the buyer an option to buy or sell a cryptocurrency at a specific strike price, on or before a specific date.

Oracles
The smart contracts stored on a blockchain are stuck within the network. They can only be reached by the external world through a program called an oracle. The oracle sends the data to and from the smart contract and the outside world as required. Oracles are most commonly found on the Ethereum network.
Oracles work as a bridge between the real world and the blockchain by providing data to the smart contracts.
For blockchain, an oracle is an automated system that decides based on pre-set rules and real-world events. It’s an essential function that helps to arbitrate smart contracts.
An agent that finds and verifies information, bridging the real world and the blockchain by providing data to smart contracts for execution of said contracts under specified conditions.

Orphan
A valid block on the blockchain that is not part of the main chain. They may come into existence when two miners produce blocks at similar times, or caused by an attacker attempting to reverse transactions. This is sometimes also known as a detached block”.

Over The Counter (OTC)
Over The Counter is defined as a transaction made outside of an exchange, often peer-to-peer through private trades. In jurisdictions where exchanges are disallowed or where amounts traded will move the markets, traders will go through the OTC route.

Overbought
If a large number of purchases have been made on a cryptocurrency, its price will increase for an extended period of time. At this juncture, it is considered overbought and a period of selling is expected.

Overbought
When a cryptocurrency has been purchased by more and more investors over time, with its price increasing for an extended period of time. When this happens without any justifiable reason, the cryptocurrency is considered overbought, and a period of selling is expected.

Oversold
When a cryptocurrency has been sold by more and more investors over time, with its price decreasing for an extended period of time. When this happens without any justifiable reason, the cryptocurrency is considered oversold, and a period of buying is expected.
If a cryptocurrency has spent significant time being sold without an upward movement, it is considered oversold. In this condition, there would be concerns about whether it will bounce back.

P2P
It means peer to peer or person to person.

Pair
Trade between one cryptocurrency and another, for example, the trading pair

Paper Wallet
A type of cold storage where private and public keys (and often a QR code) are printed or written on physical paper to prevent hacking and theft.
Storing your wallet code (your private key) on a physical document makes it a paper wallet. It’s also sometimes referred to as cold storage.

Peer to Peer
Peer to Peer (P2P) refers to the decentralized interactions between two parties or more in a highly-interconnected network. Participants of a P2P network deal directly with each other through a single mediation point.
In a peer-to-peer connection, two or more computers network with each other without a centralized third party being used as an intermediary.

Peer to Peer (P2P)
The decentralized interactions between parties in a distributed network, partitioning tasks or workloads between peers.
A peer-to-peer network that distributes computing tasks among many, private computers (decentralized), instead of using company computers (centralized).

Permissioned Ledger
A ledger designed with restrictions, such that only people or organizations requiring access have permission to access it.

Platform
On CoinMarketCap, platform refers to the parent blockchain of tokens. It may also refer to a cryptocurrency exchange on which you may trade cryptocurrencies.

PND
Acronym for pump and dump”.

Ponzi Scheme
A fraudulent investment involving the payment of purported returns to existing investors from funds contributed by new investors.

Portfolio
A collection of cryptocurrencies or crypto assets held by an investment company, hedge fund, financial institution or individual.

PoS
Proof-of-stake (not piece of shit). The proposed future consensus algorithm to be used by Ethereum. Instead of mining in its current form, people that own ETH will be able to ‘lock up’ their ether for a short amount of time in order to ‘vote’ and generate network consensus. The plan is that these stakeholders will be rewarded with ETH by doing so.

PoW
Proof-of-work. The current consensus algorithm used by Ethereum.

Pre-mine
When some or all of a coin’s initial supply is generated during or before the public launch, rather than being generated over time through mining or inflation. They may be used for legitimate purposes, such as crowdfunding or marketing.

Pre-Sale
A period before an ICO goes public when private investors or community members are able to buy the cryptocurrency.

Private Key
A string of numbers and letters that are used to access your wallet. While your wallet is represented by a public key, the private key is the password you should protect (with your life). You need your private key when selling or withdrawing cryptocurrencies, as it acts as your digital signature.
A private key is a secret, alphanumeric password/number used to spend/send your bitcoins to another Bitcoin address.
A string of letters and numbers that are used for sending cryptocurrency. The private key should be kept secret because it enables spending with the cryptocurrency wallet.

Private Key / Secret Key
A piece of code generated in asymmetric-key encryption process, paired with a public key, to be used in decrypting information hashed with the public key.

Private/public keys
Keys are used in all cryptocurrency transactions and come in two forms

Proof of Authority (PoA)
A private key that gives the holder the right to create the blocks in a private blockchain. It can be held by a single entity or a set number of entities. This is an alternative to the proof-of-work model, as instead of getting multiple random nodes to approve a transaction, a group of specific nodes are given the authority to approve. This is a far faster method.

Proof of stake
Proof of stake (PoS) is a consensus algorithm that rewards cryptocurrency miners based on the amount of cryptocurrency they hold. The more cryptocurrency a miner owns, the larger the share of the payout for each solved block they receive. There is no actual block reward in a PoS, with miners directly earning transaction fee currency instead. PoS is the newer of the two consensus algorithms, and it is slated to begin being used for Etherium mining sometime in 2018. Supporters of PoS argue that it’s more cost effective than proof of work mining.
Another alternative to proof of work, this caps the reward given to miners for providing their computational power to the network at that miner’s investment in the cryptocurrency. So if a miner holds three coins, they can only earn three coins. The system encourages miners to stick with a certain blockchain rather than converting their rewards to an alternate cryptocurrency.

Proof of Stake (POS)
For Proof of Stake, miners still process and validate transactions, but do so by proving that they have ownership of a certain amount of the asset, rather than by performing energy-intensive computations. For PoS, miners lock up” their assets (that’s the stake”) and then promise to fairly process transactions

Proof of work
Proof of work (PoW) is the traditional consensus algorithm that rewards cryptocurrency miners based on how much they contributed to a solved block. The more work performed the more the cryptocurrency miner earns when a block is added to the chain. PoW is used by most cryptocurrencies, but it makes it more difficult for those with low-end mining rigs to earn money.
In order to receive a reward for mining a cryptocurrency, miners must show that their computers contributed effort to approve a transaction. A variable is added to the process of hashing a transaction that demands that effort before a block can be successfully hashed. Having a hashed block proves the miner did work and deserves a reward – hence proof of work.

Proof of Work (POW)
For Proof or Work, so-called miners” process transactions by using computers to solve complicated mathematical puzzles. They proof” that they did this computational work by finding solutions to those puzzles. By doing this, they help validate and process transactions and in turn are paid for their work with transactions fees and with newly created coins.

Proof-of-Authority (PoA)
A blockchain consensus mechanism that delivers comparatively fast transactions using identity as a stake.

Proof-of-Burn (PoB)
A blockchain consensus mechanism aiming to bootstrap one blockchain to another with increased energy efficiency, by verifying that a cost was incurred in burning” a coin by sending it to an unspendable address.

Proof-of-Developer (PoD)
Any verification that provides evidence of a real, living software developer who created a cryptocurrency, in order to prevent an anonymous developer from making away with any raised funds without delivering a working model.

Proof-of-Stake (PoS)
A blockchain consensus mechanism involving choosing the creator of the next block via various combinations of random selection and wealth or age of staked coins or tokens. *see Proof-of-Work (PoW).

Proof-of-Work (PoW)
A blockchain consensus mechanism involving solving of computationally intensive puzzles to validate transactions and create new blocks. *see Proof-of-Stake (PoS).

Protocol
The set of rules that define interactions on a network, usually involving consensus, transaction validation, and network participation on a blockchain.

Protocols
The set of rules that defines how data is exchanged across a network.

Pseudonymous
Writing under a false name, such as Satoshi Nakamoto”.

Public Address
A public address is the cryptographic hash of a public key. They act as email addresses that can be published anywhere, unlike private keys.

Public blockchain
A blockchain that can be accessed by anyone through a full node on their computer.

Public Key
This is your unique wallet address, which appears as a long string of numbers and letters. It is used to receive cryptocurrencies.

Public Key Cryptography
A cryptographic system that uses both a private key and public key to safeguard transactions. It’s the central security-layer behind cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin.

Public Key/Bitcoin address
This is another alphanumeric address/number which is derived from private keys and is used to publicly receive bitcoins.

Pump
This is a term used to refer to an upward price movement, usually driven by whales investing large sums of money in a cryptocurrency.

Pump & Dump
Investment scheme that advertises the benefits of a certain asset, with the hope that a lot of people buy it and raise the price. The asset is then sold by the originator for profit.

Pump and Dump
The frowned-upon practice of buying a lot of one cryptocurrency to drive up its price and encourage others to invest, then selling the lot when there is a suitable margin.

Pump and Dump (P&D) Scheme
A form of securities fraud involving the artificial inflation of the price of a cryptocurrency with false and misleading positive statements in order to sell previously-cheaply purchased stock at a higher price.

QR Code
A machine-readable label that shows information encoded into a graphical black-and-white pattern. For cryptocurrencies, it is often used to easily share wallet addresses with others.

Raiden Network
An off-chain scaling solution aiming to enable near-instant, low-fee and scalable payments on the Ethereum blockchain. It is similar to Bitcoin’s proposed Lightning Network.
An upcoming protocol change to Ethereum that will enable high-speed transfers across the network. It is similar in some aspects to Bitcoin’s planned Lightning Network. The name, I assume, comes from the Mortal Kombat character named Raiden that can shoot lightning.

Rank
The relative position of a cryptocurrency by market capitalization.

Recovery phrase/seed keyword
Random 12, 18, 24 words that are used to derive numerous pairs of private and public keys. Using these seeds, you can restore your wallet in any other supported seed key wallet.

REKT
Shorthand slang for wrecked” and a term used to describe a bad loss in a trade.

Relative Strength Index
A type of technical analysis whereby you determine the momentum of price change over time. It looks at recent changes in price exponentially, with the most recent changes given more weight than older ones. This produces an overall trend of movement for a cryptocurrency that can determine if the market is overbought (a reading higher than 70) or oversold (a reading lower than 30).

Relative Strength Index (RSI)
A form of technical analysis that serves as a momentum oscillator, measuring the speed and change of price movements, developed by J. Welles Wilder. It oscillates between zero and 100, where a cryptocurrency is considered overbought when the indicator is above 70 and oversold when below 30.

Replicated Ledger
A copy of a distributed ledger in a network that is distributed to all participants in a cryptocurrency network.

Return on Investment (ROI)
The percentage gain that was made with an investment or asset. For example, a 100% ROI means that the price of the asset or investment has doubled in value.

Reverse Indicator
A person whom you may use as an indicator of how not to place buy or sell orders because they are always wrong at predicting price movements of cryptocurrencies.

Reward
Rewards are cryptocurrency paid to blockchain miners whenever a block is solved and added to the blockchain. The currency rewarded comes from two sources

Ring Signature
A ring signature is a type of encryption process that retains anonymity for the user. The concept gives the network of nodes the power to approve a transaction on a blockchain without identifying which of the nodes requested the transaction. As a result, it cannot be traced.

Ripple
A Blockchain payment system for banks, payment providers, digital asset exchanges, and other companies. Designed to move large amounts of money more quickly and reliably.
Ripple is a centralized cryptocurrency that is designed to make international payments easier by eliminating exchange rates and cross-border fees. It has faced criticism due to its centralized ledger, which gives the Ripple company—instead of purchasers and investors—the ability to control prices.

ROI
Short for Return on Investment”, the ratio between the net profit and cost of investing.
Return on Investment. The percentage of how much money has been made compared to an initial investment. (i.e., 100% ROI means someone doubled their money).

RSI
Acronym for Relative Strength Index”.

Satoshi
A Satoshi is the smallest unit of Bitcoin. It is named after Satoshi Nakamoto, the creator of Bitcoin. Each BTC is divisible until the 1/10^8 part. A unit of Satoshi is equal to 0.00000001 bitcoin.

Satoshi (SATS)
The smallest unit of bitcoin with a value of 0.00000001 BTC.

Satoshi Nakamoto
The mysterious creator of Bitcoin. Even though Bitcoin was created in 2008, to this day nobody knows his or her true identity. Satoshi could be a woman, a man, or a group.

SATS
This is the smallest unit of bitcoin, which is 0.00000001 BTC. The name SATS is shorthand for Satoshi Nakamoto, which is the fake name used by the creator of bitcoin.

Scam
A fraudulent or deceptive cryptocurrency or ICO.

Scrypt
Scrypt (pronounced ess-crypt) is a cryptographic hash algorithm that is used by several cryptocurrencies as an alternative to SHA-256. Scrypt is simpler, less resource-intensive, and easier to solve than SHA-256, making it a more popular choice for individual miners since they don’t need specialized hardware to mine it. The trade-off is that scrypt is supposedly less secure, though there has been no real-world case of it being cracked.
An alternative Proof-of Work (PoW) algorithm to SHA-256, used in Bitcoin mining. Scrypt mining relies more heavily on memory than on pure CPU power, aiming to reduce the advantage that ASICs have and hence increasing network participation and energy efficiency.
Scrypt is a type of cryptographic algorithm and is used by Litecoin. Compared to SHA256, this is quicker as it does not use up as much processing time.
An algorithm that encrypts a key in such a fashion that it takes a serious amount of RAM to hash it. The system makes it challenging to attack for hackers. Despite its spelling, Scrypt is pronounced ess-crypt”.

SEC
Short for Securities and Exchange Commission. A United States government agency that regulated securities (stocks, bonds, etc.) as well as stock exchanges.

Second-Layer Solutions
A set of solutions built on top of a public blockchain to extend its scalability and efficiency, especially for micro-transactions or actions. Examples include

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
An independent agency of the United States federal government, responsible for enforcing federal securities laws, proposing securities rules, and regulating the securities industry, the nation’s stock and options exchanges, and other related activities and organizations.

Seed
The origin point from which you created your wallet ID. Usually, a seed is a phrase or a series of words that can be used to regenerate your wallet ID if you lose it. Something to keep very secret.

Segregated Witness
The processes of separating digital signature data from transaction data. This lets more transactions fit onto one block in the blockchain, improving transaction speeds.

Segregated Witness (SegWit)
A Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) that aimed to fix transaction malleability on Bitcoin. In the past, when changing the witness” information (signatures) on blocks, it would change the transaction ID and its subsequent hash; SegWit was aiming to fix this by segregating signature and block content; a side effect of this change was smaller block sizes and the ability to support second layer solutions.

SEGWIT
Acronym for segregated witness”.

Selfish Mining
A situation in which a miner mines a new block but does not broadcast this new block to the other miners. If this miner is able to find a second block faster than all other miners, then they would have created the longest public chain, invalidating all other blocks discovered in the time it took to execute this attack.
If a miner finds or creates a new block in the blockchain and then doesn’t share that information with the network, he or she is partaking in selfish mining. This is because other miners are now burning their computational power on an old block, allowing the selfish miner to get a head start on the new block.

Sell Wall
A situation where a large limit order has been placed to sell when a cryptocurrency reaches a certain value. This can sometimes be used by traders to create a certain impression in the market, preventing a cryptocurrency from rising above that value, as supply will likely outstrip demand when the order is executed.
When a large limit order has been placed to sell when a cryptocurrency reaches a certain value, that is a sell wall. This can prevent a cryptocurrency from rising above that value, as supply will likely outstrip demand when the order is executed.

SHA-256
SHA-256 is a cryptographic algorithm used by cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. However, it uses a lot of computing power and processing time, forcing miners to form mining pools to capture gains.
A cryptographic hash function that generates a 256-bit signature for a text, used in Bitcoin Proof-of-Work (PoW). Standing for Secure Hash Algorithm”, it is one of the SHA-2 algorithms, first designed by the NSA.

sharding
A scaling solution for blockchains. Typically, every node in a blockchain network houses a complete copy of the blockchain. Sharding is a method that allows nodes to have partial copies of the complete blockchain in order to increase overall network performance and consensus speeds.
Sharding is a way of splitting up the full blockchain history so each full node doesn’t need the whole copy of it. It’s considered a scaling solution for blockchains because as they grow larger, it begins to slow the network performance if every node is required to carry the full blockchain.

Shill / Shilling
Aggressively advertising an asset for personal financial gain, even to the detriment of others and often while distorting the truth. Also known as pumping.

Shilling
The act of enthusiastically promoting a cryptocurrency or ICO project.

Shilling / pumping
Someone essentially advertising another crypto-currency. If a coin is promised to cure cancer or be the second coming of Jesus, it’s being shilled.

Shit Coin
No points for guessing this one. It’s a term used to describe a cryptocurrency not expected to have a positive future.
A coin with no obvious potential value or usage.

Short
Also known as short selling, this is a concept whereby traders sell an asset they don’t have. The hope is that they can then buy the asset at a lower price than which they sold it to complete the deal. Thereby they earn a margin in the interim.
A trading technique in which a trader borrows an asset in order to sell it, with the expectation that the price will continue to decline. In the event that the price does decline, the short seller will then buy the asset at this lower price in order to return it to the lender of the asset, making the difference in profit.

Side Chain
A blockchain ledger that runs in parallel to a primary blockchain, where there is a two-way link between the primary chain and sidechain. This allows the sidechain to operate independently of the primary blockchain, using their own protocols or ledger mechanisms.

Silk Road
An online black market that existed on the dark web, now shut down by the FBI. It had accepted bitcoins for transactions.

Simplified Payment Verification (SPV)
A lightweight client to verify blockchain transactions, downloading only block headers and requesting proof of inclusion to the blockchain in the Merkle Tree.

Smart contract
A smart contract is a computer protocol intended to facilitate, verify, or enforce a contract on the blockchain without third parties.
When a contract is written in computer code, as opposed to traditional legal language, it is deemed a smart contract. This programmed contract is set up to execute and carry itself out automatically under specified conditions. When a smart contract is on the blockchain, both parties can check its programming before agreeing to it, and then let it do its thing, confident that it cannot be tampered with or changed. It lets two parties agree to complex terms without needing to trust each other and without needing to involve any third parties. This functionality is the defining feature of the Ethereum blockchain.
Code that is deployed onto the Ethereum blockchain, often directly interacting with how money flows. Not my quote, but: A normal transaction allows you to send money from A to B. Smart contracts allow you to send money from A to B, on the condition that C happens.”

Smart Contracts
Smart contracts encode business rules in a programmable language onto the blockchain and are enforced by the participants of the network.

Soft Cap
The minimum amount that an initial coin offering (ICO) wants to raise. Sometimes, if the ICO is unable to raise the soft cap amount, it may be called off entirely. *see Hard Cap.

Soft Fork
A fork in a blockchain protocol where previously valid transactions become invalid. A soft fork is backwards-compatible, as the old nodes running the old protocol will still consider new transactions valid, rather than disregarding them. For a soft fork to work, a majority of the miners powering the network will need to upgrade to the new protocol.
A soft fork differs from a hard fork in that only previously valid transactions are made invalid. Since old nodes recognize the new blocks as valid, a soft fork is essentially backward-compatible. This type of fork requires most miners upgrading in order to enforce, while a hard fork requires all nodes to agree on the new version.

Soft Fork (Blockchain)
A protocol upgrade where only previously valid transactions are made invalid, with most soft forks requiring miners to upgrade their mining software in order to enforce it. *see Hard Fork.

Software Wallet
A common form of wallet where the private key for an individual is stored within software files on a computer. This is the system you are likely to use if you sign up for a wallet online that is not associated with an exchange.
Storage for crypto-currency that exists purely as software files on a computer. Software wallets can be generated for free from a variety of sources. MyEtherWallet (MEW) is one of the popular. (more on MEW below)

Solidity
Solidity is Ethereum’s programming language for developing smart contracts.
One of the most popular languages that smart contracts can be written in. Has some similarities to Javascript.

A programming language similar to JavaScript but focused on developing smart contracts. It’s exported as bytecode, which is used by the Ethereum Virtual Machine that runs the Ethereum network.

Spot
A contract or transaction buying or selling a cryptocurrency for immediate settlement, or payment and delivery, of the cryptocurrency on the market.

Spot Market
A public market in which cryptocurrencies are traded for immediate settlement. It contrasts with a futures market, in which settlement is due at a later date.

Stable Coin
A cryptocurrency with extremely low volatility, sometimes used as a means of portfolio diversification. Examples include gold-backed cryptocurrency or fiat-pegged cryptocurrency.

Staking
Participation in a Proof-of-Stake (PoS) system to put your tokens in to serve as a validator to the blockchain and receive rewards.

Stale Block
A block which was successfully mined but not included on the current longest blockchain, usually because another block at the same height was added to the chain first.

State Channel
A second-layer scaling solution that reduces the total on-chain transactions necessary, moving the transactions off-chain and letting participants sign to the main chain after multiple off-chain transactions.

Supply
Supply refers to a total amount of a particular cryptocurrency and is divided into three terms

Symbol
The ticker of a cryptocurrency; for example, Bitcoin’s symbol is BTC.

TA
Acronym for technical analysis”.
Trend Analysis or Technical Analysis. Refers to the process of examining current charts in order to predict which way the market will move next.

Taint
The percentage of cryptocurrency in an account that can be traced to another account.

Tangle
The Tangle is a blockchain alternative developed by IOTA, using directed acyclic graphs which only builds in one single direction and in a way that it never repeats, and is quantum-computing resistant.

Technical Analysis
Using a trading tool to look at historical data on a cryptocurrency in the hope of forecasting its future.

Technical Analysis / Trend Analysis (TA)
An evaluation method involving statistical analyses of market activity, such as price and volume. Charts and other tools are used to identify patterns to underpin and drive investment decisions.

Testnet
An alternative blockchain that is not public and live. It is used to test new code and doesn’t transact any real money or value. Allows developers to experiment and learn.
A test blockchain used by developers to prevent expending assets on the main chain.
When a cryptocurrency creator is testing out a new version of a blockchain, it does so on a test net. This runs like a second version of the blockchain but doesn’t impact the value associated with the primary, active blockchain.

The Flippening
A potential future event wherein Ethereum’s market cap surpasses Bitcoin’s market cap, making Ethereum the most ‘valuable’ crypto-currency.

Think Long Term (TLT)
A mindset where you have a longer-term investment horizon of months to years.

This is Gentlemen
Originally an error in writing the full This is it, gentlemen”. It is now used as an introduction for good news.
This is it, gentlemen”. Used to point out positive things that are currently happening.

Ticker
An abbreviation used to uniquely identify cryptocurrencies. *see Symbol.

Timelock / Locktime
A condition for a transaction to only be processed at a certain time or block on the blockchain.

Timestamp
A form of identification for when a certain transaction occurred, usually with date and time of day and accurate to fractions of a second.
The moment in time when a transaction was encrypted and regarded as proof that the data compiled in that transaction existed.

To The Moon
Refers to price moving to astronomical heights.

Token
Cryptocurrency tokens, like physical tokens used in the real world, are representations of some kind of asset. Tokens in the cryptocurrency world typically represent a certain amount of cryptocurrency (similar to how poker chips represent certain amounts of fiat money), and are usually issued on top of another blockchain to represent a utility or asset used by that blockchain. Tokens are a key part of ICOs—when an ICO investor buys in, they are typically awarded with tokens instead of actual hard cryptocurrency.
A digital unit designed with utility in mind, providing access and use of a larger cryptoeconomic system. It does not have store of value on its own, but are made so that software can be developed around it.
A unit of value for a blockchain system. Tokens can be used for payment, access, voting, and facilitating the overall blockchain infrastructure. Most tokens are based on Ethereum.

Token Generation Event
The time at which a token is issued.

Tokenize
The process by which real-world assets are turned into something of digital value called a token, often subsequently able to offer ownership of parts of this asset to different owners.

Tokenless Ledger
Refers to a distributed blockchain ledger that doesn’t require a token (see above) or other native digital currency to function and to facilitate transactions.
When a distributed ledger exists but doesn’t need a currency in which to operate. With these blockchains, the miners upholding the network typically don’t get a reward/payment.

Tokens
Refers to the ‘currency’ of projects built on the ethereum network that have raised money via issuing their own tokens. Examples:
GNT – Golem
REP – Augur
BAT – Basic Attention Token
ICN – Iconomi

TOR
Acronym for terms of reference”.
Tor is free software for enabling anonymous communication. The name is derived from an acronym for the original software project name The Onion Router. It consists of a network of volunteer relays to conceal users’ location and usage.

Total Supply
The total amount of coins in existence right now, minus any coins that have been verifiably burned. *see Circulating Supply and Max Supply.

Trade Volume
Is the amount of the cryptocurrency that has been traded in the last 24 hours.

Transaction
The value of cryptocurrency moved from one entity to another on a blockchain network.

Transaction (TX)
The act of exchanging cryptocurrencies on a blockchain.

Transaction Block
A collection of transactions gathered into a block that can then be hashed and added to the blockchain.
Each block that is mined and added to the blockchain consists of a list of transactions, such as buying or selling coins, trades, or purchases using cryptocurrency.

Transaction Fee
All cryptocurrency transactions involve a small transaction fee. These transaction fees add up to account for the block reward that a miner receives when he successfully processes a block.
Whenever an individual buys, sells, trades, or otherwise uses cryptocurrency, they have to request that a miner mines their transaction, adds it to a transaction block, and then adds the completed block containing their transaction to the blockchain. In order to ensure a transaction is mined, a fee has to be paid to incentivize miners to solve it. Transaction fees aren’t fixed, but offering too little can result in a failed transaction, while offering too much simply means the user is wasting money. Failed transactions can be dangerous for cryptocurrency users—if a transaction doesn’t make it to the blockchain, someone else could theoretically spend the same coin, robbing the user of its value.
Usually very small fees given to the miners involved in successfully approving a transaction on the blockchain. This fee can vary depending on the difficulty involved in a transaction and overall network capabilities at that moment in time. If an exchange is involved in facilitating that transaction, it could also take a cut of the overall transaction fee.
Payment made to the volunteers who process transactions on a blockchain (miners). Transaction fees can vary by cryptocurrency and also by the desired transaction speed.

Transaction fees
Bitcoin transaction incentives that the miners receive for mining block via bitcoins, which is actually a small fee that the bitcoin users pay in order to complete BTC transactions.

Transaction ID
Another alphanumeric string through which you can publicly see the transfer details (amount sent, sending/receiving bitcoin address, as well as the date of transfer) on the bitcoin blockchain.

Trezor
A popular hardware cryptocurrency wallet. Trezor was the first Bitcoin hardware but today offers support for altcoins such as Ethereum, Litecoin, Dash, and more.

Trustless
Blockchains are trustless because no participant needs to trust any other participant for transactions to work out. Trust comes from the system itself, which is impartial.
A property of the blockchain, where no participant needs to trust any other participant for transactions to be enforced as intended.

Tumbler
Another name for a mixing service.

Turing Complete
Turing complete refers to the ability of a machine to perform calculations that any other programmable computer is capable of. An example of this is the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM).
A computer system or computer language is Turing complete (computationally universal), if it can process any code that a general-purpose computer could. Example

Turing-Complete
Turing-complete refers to the ability of a machine to perform calculations that any other programmable computer is capable of. An example of this is the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM).
If a machine is capable of performing all conceivable programmable calculations, then it is Turing complete. This machine can process any computable function and includes most modern computers.

Unconfirmed
A state in which a transaction has not been appended to the blockchain.
When a transaction is proposed, it is unconfirmed until the network has examined the blockchain to ensure that there are no other transactions pending involving that same coin. In the unconfirmed state, the transaction has not been appended to the blockchain.

Unpermissioned Ledger
A public blockchain.
A ledger that doesn’t require the approval of a central authority to be used. It is not owned by anyone and open to participation. A good example is Bitcoin itself.

Unspent Transaction Output
An output of a blockchain transaction that has not been spent, and can be used as an input for new transactions.
This refers to the amount of cryptocurrency sent to an entity but not sent on elsewhere. These amounts are considered unspent and are the data stored in the blockchain.

UTC Time
Coordinated Universal Time. It is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time, kept using highly precise atomic clocks combined with the Earth’s rotation.

Utility Token
A token that grants owners access to Blockchain products or services for specific projects. These tokens are not intended to be investments or to grant equity ownership in a project, though some investors speculate on a potential future price increase. Utility tokens are also known as utility coins, app coins, and user tokens.

UTXO
Acronym for unspent transaction output”.

Validator
A participant on a Proof-of-Stake (PoS) blockchain, involved in validating blocks for rewards.

Vanity Address
A cryptocurrency public address (see above) that includes custom letters and numbers that are human-readable. An example would look like 1r4523COINCOIN7u01174234kf.

Vaporware
A cryptocurrency project that is never actually developed.

Venture Capital
A form of private equity provided to fund small, early-stage firms considered to have high growth potential.

Virgin Bitcoin
A bitcoin that has never been spent.

Vitalik Buterin
Rusian-Canadian programmer and creator of the decentralized application platform Ethereum. Born 1994, Vitalik also contributed to other open-source projects.

Volatility
A statistical measure of dispersion of returns, measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index.
The fluctuation in an asset’s price is measured by its volatility. Cryptocurrency prices are notoriously volatile compared to other assets, as dramatic price shifts can happen quickly.
Created by the rapid and repeated move of an asset’s price in both directions (up and down). Volatility adds uncertainty and risk to a market, but can also present opportunity.

Volume
The amount of cryptocurrency that has been traded during a certain period of time, such as the last 24 hours or more. Volume can show the direction and movement of the cryptocurrency as well as a prediction of future price and its demand.

Wallet
A cryptocurrency wallet is a secure digital wallet used to store, send, and receive digital currency, and are divided into two categories
A wallet is a digital storage space for cryptocurrency. Wallets can be apps, cloud-based websites, or just a plain TXT document stored on a hard drive. If a cryptocurrency wallet is stolen, or its private key is revealed, anyone has access to the coins it contains—just like having your wallet stolen in real life.
A wallet is defined by a unique code that represents its address” on the blockchain. The wallet address is public, but within it is a number of private keys determining ownership of the balance and the balance itself. It can exist in software, hardware, paper or other forms.
A file that houses private keys. It usually contains a software client which allows access to view and create transactions on a specific blockchain that the wallet is designed for.

Wash Trade
A form of market manipulation in which investors create artificial activity in the marketplace by simultaneously selling and buying the same cryptocurrencies.

Watchlist
A watchlist is a feature of the website where users can create their own lists of cryptocurrencies to follow. Alternative definition

Weak Hands
An investor prone to panic selling at the first sign of a price decline.

Web Wallet
A type of cryptocurrency wallet that is online (hot storage). Most cryptocurrency exchange wallets are web wallets. Popular for their convenience but can increase hacking risk.

Wei
The smallest fraction of an Ether coin (Ether is the native currency of the Ethereum network). One Ether is made of 1000000000000000000 Wei, making Ether very divisible.

Whale
Someone that owns absurd amounts of crypto-currency.
A term used to describe investors who have uncommonly large amounts of crypto, especially those with enough funds to manipulate the market. *see Fish/Minnow and Dolphin.
It refers to an entity or a person who holds an absurd amount of particular cryptocurrency and has the potential to manipulate the market.

When Lambo
The extended expression for Lambo.

When Moon
The extended expression for Moon.

White Paper
A detailed explanation of a cryptocurrency, designed to offer satisfactory technical information, explain the purpose of the coin and set out a roadmap for how it plans to succeed. It’s designed to convince investors that it’s a good choice ahead of an ICO.

Whitelist
A list of interested participants in an ICO, who registered their intent to take part or purchase in a sale.
Prior to an ICO, interested parties can sign up/register their involvement and intent to purchase or even purchase under pre-sale conditions. The list of these parties is referred to as the whitelist.

Whitepaper
A formal, scientifically-written description of an idea or project. Whitepapers cover the theory and practical applications of cryptocurrencies, as well as many technical details.
A document prepared by an ICO project team to interest investors with its vision, cryptocurrency use and cryptoeconomic design, technical information, and a roadmap for how it plans to grow and succeed.
A report which articulates the problem and solution that the blockchain project/cryptocurrency is trying to solve.

XBT and BTC
Common abbreviations for bitcoin. There is no difference between these two abbreviations.

XMR
XMR is the short ticker symbol for Monero, which is often used on exchanges and other financial platforms. Monero is a privacy-focused, untraceable cryptocurrency.

YTD
Stands for Year to Date.

Zero Confirmation Transaction
Alternative phrasing for an unconfirmed transaction.
Cryptocurrency transactions are confirmed at regular intervals. New transactions have zero confirmations, which means they have not been verified yet and are less reliable.

Zero Knowledge Proof
In cryptography, a zero knowledge proof enables one party to provide evidence that a transaction or event happened without revealing private details of that transaction or event.



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